The Lady Of The Roses - Ann Blyth - Hail Mary (Vinyl, LP, Album) download full album zip cd mp3 vinyl flac
It would then be towed into shallower water and the procedure repeated until the whole ship could be raised completely. A list of necessary equipment was compiled by 1 August and included, among other things, massive cables, capstans, pulleysand 40 pounds of tallow for lubrication.
The proposed salvage team comprised 30 Venetian mariners and a Venetian carpenter with 60 English sailors to serve them. Brandon was so confident of success that he reassured the king that it would only be a matter of days before they could raise the Mary Rose. The optimism proved unfounded. Since the ship had settled at a degree angle to starboard much of it was stuck deep into the clay of the seabed. This made it virtually impossible to pass cables under the hull and required far more lifting power than if the ship had settled on a hard seabed.
An attempt to secure cables to the main mast appears only to have resulted in its being snapped off. The project was only successful in raising rigging, some guns and other items. At least two other salvage teams in and received payment for raising more guns from the wreck. When all hope of raising the complete ship was finally abandoned is not known.
It could have been after Henry VIII's death in January or even as late aswhen the last guns were brought up. After the sinking, the partially buried wreck created a barrier at a right angle against the currents of the Solent. Two scour pits, large underwater ditches, formed on either side of the wreck while silt and seaweed was deposited inside the ship. A deep but narrow pit formed on the upward tilting port side, while a shallower, broader pit formed on the starboard side, which had mostly been buried by the force of the impact.
The abrasive actions of sand and silt carried by the currents and the activity of fungi, bacteria and wood-boring crustaceans and molluscs, such as the teredo "shipworm", began to break down the structure of the ship. Eventually the exposed wooden structure was weakened and gradually collapsed. The timbers and contents of the port side were either deposited in the scour pits and remaining ship structure, or carried off by the currents. Following the collapse of the exposed parts of the ship, the site was levelled with the seabed and gradually covered by layers of sediment, concealing most of the remaining structure.
During the 16th century, a hard layer of compacted clay and crushed shells formed over the ship, stabilising the site and sealing the Tudor-era deposits. Further layers of soft silt covered the site during the 18th and 19th centuries, but frequent changes in the tidal patterns and currents in the Solent occasionally exposed some of the timbers, leading to its accidental rediscovery in and aided in locating the wreck in In mid, a group of five fishermen caught their nets on timbers protruding from the bottom of the Solent.
They contacted a diver to help them remove the hindrance, and on 10 JuneHenry Abbinett became the first person to see the Mary Rose in almost years. Later, two other professional divers, John Deane and William Edwards, were employed.
Using a recently invented rubber suit and metal diving helmet, Deane and Edwards began to examine the wreck and salvage items from it. Initially, this caused a dispute between Deane who had also brought in his brother Charles into the projectAbbinett and the fishermen who had hired them.
The matter was eventually settled by allowing the fishermen a share of the proceeds from the sale of the first salvaged guns, while Deane received exclusive salvage rights at the expense of Abbinett.
The wreck was soon identified as the Mary Rose from the inscriptions of one of the bronze guns manufactured in The identification of the ship led to significant public interest in the salvage operation, and caused a great demand for the objects which were brought up. Though many of the objects could not be properly conserved at the time and subsequently deteriorated, many were documented with pencil sketches and watercolour drawings which survive to this day.
John Deane ceased working on the wreck inbut returned in with new, more destructive methods. With the help of condemned bomb shells filled with gunpowder acquired from the Ordnance Board, he blasted his way into parts of the wreck. Fragments of bombs and traces of blasting craters were found during the modern excavations, but there was no evidence that Deane managed to penetrate the hard layer that had sealed off the Tudor levels.
Deane reported retrieving a bilge pump and the lower part of the main mast, both of which would have been located inside the ship. The recovery of small wooden objects like longbows suggests that Deane did manage to penetrate the Tudor levels at some point, though this has been disputed by the excavation project leader Margaret Rule. Newspaper reports on Deane's diving operations in October report that the ship was clinker built, but since the sterncastle is the only part of the ship with this feature, an alternative explanation has been suggested: Deane did not penetrate the hard shelly layer that covered most of the ship, but only managed to get into remains of the sterncastle that today no longer exist.
The modern search for the Mary Rose was initiated by the Southsea branch of the British Sub-Aqua Club in as part of a project to locate shipwrecks in the Solent. The project was under the leadership of historian, journalist and amateur diver Alexander McKee. Initially the two teams had differing views on where to find the wreck, but eventually joined forces.
In February a chart from was found that marked the positions of the Mary Rose and several other wrecks. In a loose timber was located and on 5 Maythe first structural details of the buried hull were identified after they were partially uncovered by winter storms. A major problem for the team from the start was that wreck sites in the UK lacked any legal protection from plunderers and treasure hunters.
Sunken ships, once being moving objects, were legally treated as chattel and were awarded to those who could first raise them. The Merchant Shipping Act of also stipulated that any objects raised from a wreck should be auctioned off to finance the salvage operations, and there was nothing preventing anyone from "stealing" the wreck and making a profit.
The problem was handled by forming an organisation, the Mary Rose Committee, aiming "to find, excavate, raise and preserve for all time such remains of the ship Mary Rose as may be of historical or archaeological interest". To keep intruders at bay, the Committee arranged a lease of the seabed where the wreck lay from the Portsmouth authorities, thereby discouraging anyone from trespassing on the underwater property.
In hindsight this was only a legalistic charade which had little chance of holding up in a court of law. In combination with secrecy as to the exact location of the wreck, it saved the project from interference. It was not until the passing of the Protection of Wrecks Act on 5 February that the Mary Rose was declared to be of national historic interest that enjoyed full legal protection from any disturbance by commercial salvage teams.
Despite this, years after the passing of the act and the excavation of the ship, lingering conflicts with salvage legislation remained a threat to the Mary Rose project as "personal" finds such as chests, clothing and cooking utensils risked being confiscated and auctioned off. Following the discovery of the wreck inthe project became known to the general public and received increasing media attention.
This helped bring in more donations and equipment, primarily from private sources. In the project received royal patronage from Prince Charleswho participated in dives on the site. This attracted yet more publicity, and also more funding and assistance. The Committee had become a registered charity inwhich made it easier to raise funds, and the application for excavation and raising of the ship had been officially approved by the UK government.
By the initial excavation work had uncovered a complete and coherent site with an intact ship structure and the orientation of the hull had been positively identified as being on an almost straight northerly heading with a degree heel to starboard and a slight downward tilt towards the bow.
As no records of English shipbuilding techniques used in vessels like the Mary Rose survive, excavation of the ship would allow for a detailed survey of her design and shed new light on the construction of ships of the era.
It was also considered desirable to recover and preserve the remains of the hull if possible. For the first time, the project was faced with the practical difficulties of actually raising, conserving and preparing the hull for public display. To handle this new, considerably more complex and expensive task, it was decided that a new organisation was needed.
The Mary Rose Trusta limited charitable trust with representatives from many organisations would handle the need for a larger operation and a large infusion of funds. The choice fell on the salvage vessel Sleipnerthe same craft that had been used as a platform for diving operations on the Vasa. The project went from a team of only twelve volunteers working four months a year to over 50 individuals working almost around the clock nine months a year.
In addition there were over volunteer divers and a laboratory staff of about 70 that ran the shore base and conservation facilities.
Raising the Mary Rose meant overcoming a number of delicate problems that had never been encountered before. The raising of the Swedish warship Vasa —61 was the only comparable precedent, but it had been a relatively straightforward operation since the hull was completely intact and rested upright on the seabed. It had been raised with basically the same methods as were in use in Tudor England: cables were slung under the hull and attached to two pontoons on either side of the ship which was then gradually raised and towed into shallower waters.
Only one third of the Mary Rose was intact and she lay deeply embedded in mud. If the hull were raised in the traditional way, The Lady Of The Roses - Ann Blyth - Hail Mary (Vinyl, there was no guarantee that it would have enough structural strength to hold together out of water. Many suggestions for raising the ship were discarded, including the construction of a cofferdam around the wreck site, filling the ship with small buoyant objects such as ping pong balls or even pumping brine into the seabed and freezing it so that it would float and take the hull with it.
After lengthy discussions it was decided in February that the hull would first be emptied of all its contents and strengthened with steel braces and frames. It would then be lifted to the surface with floating sheerlegs attached to nylon strops passing under the hull and transferred to a cradle.
It was also decided that the ship would be recovered before the end of the diving season in If the wreck stayed uncovered any longer it risked irreversible damage from biological decay and tidal scouring. During the last year of the operation, the massive scope of full excavation and raising was beginning to take its toll on those closely involved in the project. In MayAlexander McKee voiced concerns about the method chosen for raising the timbers and openly questioned Margaret Rule 's position as excavation leader.
McKee felt ignored in what he viewed as a project where he had always played a central role, both as the initiator of the search for the Mary Rose and other ships in the Solent, and as an active member throughout the diving operations. He had several supporters who all pointed to the risk of the project's turning into an embarrassing failure if the ship were damaged during raising operations.
To address these concerns it was suggested that the hull should be placed on top of a supporting steel cradle underwater. This would avoid the inherent risks of damaging the wooden structure if it were lifted out of the water without appropriate support. The idea of using nylon strops was also discarded in favour of drilling holes through the hull at points and passing iron bolts through them to allow the attachment of wires connected to a lifting frame.
In the spring ofafter three intense seasons of archaeological underwater work, preparations began for raising the ship. The operation soon ran into problems: early on there were difficulties with the custom-made lifting equipment; divers on the project belonging to the Royal Engineers had to be pulled because of the outbreak of the Falklands War ; and the method of lifting the hull had to be considerably altered as late as June.
After the frame was properly attached to the hull, it was slowly jacked up on four legs to pull the ship off the seabed. The massive crane of the barge Tog Mor then moved the frame and hull, transferring them underwater to the specially designed cradle, which was padded with water-filled bags. On the morning of 11 Octoberthe final lift of the entire package of cradle, hull and lifting frame began.
It was watched by the team, Prince Charles and other spectators in boats around the site. At am, the first timbers of the Mary Rose broke the surface.
A second set of bags under the hull was inflated with air, to cushion the waterlogged wood. Finally, the whole package was placed on a barge and taken to the shore. As one of the most ambitious and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeologythe Mary Rose project broke new ground within this field in the UK. It was the first time that a British privately funded project was able to apply modern scientific standards fully and without having to auction off part of the findings to finance its activities; where previous projects often had to settle for just a partial recovery of finds, everything found in connection with the Mary Rose was recovered and recorded.
The raising of the vessel made it possible to establish the first historic shipwreck museum in the UK to receive government accreditation and funding. Album) excavation of the Mary Rose wreck site proved that it was possible to achieve a level of exactness in underwater excavations comparable to those on dry land. Throughout the s, the Mary Rose was meticulously surveyed, excavated and recorded with the latest methods within the field of maritime archaeology.
Working in an underwater environment meant LP principles of land-based archaeology did not always apply. Mechanical excavators, airlifts and suction dredges were used in the process of locating the wreck, but as soon as it began to be uncovered in earnest, more delicate techniques were employed. Artefacts of all sizes were supported with soft packing material, such as old plastic ice cream containers, and some of the arrows that were "soft like cream cheese" had to be brought up in special styrofoam containers.
The many layers of sediment that had accumulated on the site could be used to date artefacts in which they were found, and had to be recorded properly.
The various types of accretions and remnants of chemicals with artefacts were essential clues to objects that had long since broken down and disappeared, and needed to be treated with considerable care. The excavation and raising of the ship in the s and early s meant that diving operations ceased, even though modern scaffolding and part of the bow were left on the seabed. The pressure on conservators to treat tens of thousands of artefacts and the high costs of conserving, storing and displaying the finds and the ship meant that there were no funds available for diving.
Inthe UK Ministry of Defence announced plans to build two new aircraft carriers. Because of the great size of the new vessels, the outlet from Portsmouth needed to be surveyed to make sure that they could sail no matter the tide.
The planned route for the underwater channel ran close to the Mary Rose wrecksite, which meant that funding was supplied to survey and excavate the site once more. Even though the planned carriers were down-sized enough to not require alteration of Portsmouth outlet, the excavations had already exposed timbers and were completed in Over 26, artefacts and pieces of timber were raised along with remains of about half the crew members.
Analysis of the crew skeletons shows many had suffered malnutritionand had evidence of ricketsscurvyand other deficiency diseases. Crew members also developed arthritis through the stresses on their joints from heavy lifting and maritime life generally, and suffered bone fractures. The casks used for storage on the Mary Rose have been compared with those from a wreck of a trade vessel from the s and have revealed that they were of better quality, more robust and reliable, an indication that supplies LP the Tudor navy were given high priority, and their requirements set a high standard for cask manufacturing at the time.
As a miniature society at sea, the wreck of the Mary Rose held personal objects belonging to individual crew members. This included clothing, games, various items for spiritual or recreational use, and objects related to mundane everyday tasks such as personal hygiene, fishing, and sewing. The ship carried several skilled craftsmen and was equipped for handling both routine maintenance and repairing extensive battle damage. In and around one of the cabins on the main deck under the sterncastle, archaeologists found a "collection of woodworking tools Along with loose mallets and tar pots used for caulking, this variety of tools belonged to one or several of the carpenters employed on the Mary Rose.
Many of the cannons and other weapons from the Mary Rose have provided invaluable physical evidence about 16th-century weapon technology.
The surviving gunshields are almost all from the Mary Roseand the four small cast iron hailshot pieces are the only known examples of this type of weapon. Animal remains have been found in the wreck of the Mary Rose. These include the skeletons of a rat, a frog and a dog. Two fiddlesa bow, a still shawm or doucainethree three-hole pipesand a tabor drum with a drumstick were found throughout the wreck.
These would have been used for the personal enjoyment of the crew and to provide a rhythm to work on the rigging and turning the capstans on the upper decks. The tabor drum is the earliest known example of its kind and the drumstick of a previously unknown design. The tabor pipes are considerably longer than any known examples from the period. Their discovery proved that contemporary illustrations, previously viewed with some suspicion, were in fact accurate depictions of the instruments.
Before the discovery of the Mary Rose shawm, an early predecessor to the oboeinstrument historians had been puzzled by reference to "still shawms", or "soft" shawms, that were said to have a sound that was less shrill than earlier shawms. A reproduction has been made and played. Combined with a pipe and tabor, it provides a "very effective bass part" that would have produced "rich and full sound, which would have provided excellent music for dancing on board ship".
Reproductions of both fiddles have been made, though less is known of their design than the shawm since the neck and strings were missing. In the remains of a small cabin in the bow of the ship and in a few other locations around the wreck was found the earliest dated set of navigation instruments in Europe found so far: compasses, divider calipersa stick used for charting, protractorssounding leadstide calculators and a logreelan instrument for calculating speed.
Several of these objects are not only unique in having such an early, definite dating, but also because they pre-date written records of their use; protractors would have reasonably been used to measure bearings and courses on maps, but sea charts are not known to have been used by English navigators during the first half of the 16th century, compasses were not depicted on English ships until the s, and the first mention of a logreel is from The cabin located on the main deck underneath the sterncastle is thought to have belonged to the barber-surgeon.
He was a trained professional who saw to the health and welfare of the crew and acted as the medical expert on board. The most important of these finds were found in an intact wooden chest which contained over 60 objects relating to the barber-surgeon's medical practice: the wooden handles of a complete set of surgical tools and several shaving razors although none of the steel blades had surviveda copper syringe for wound irrigation and treatment of gonorrhoeaand even a skilfully crafted feeding bottle for feeding incapacitated patients.
More objects were found around the cabin, such as earscoops, shaving bowls and combs. With this wide selection of tools and medicaments the barber-surgeon, along with one or more assistants, could set bone fractures, perform amputations and deal with other acute injuries, treat a number of diseases and provide crew members with a minimal standard of personal hygiene.
One of the first scientifically confirmed ratters was "Hatch" a terrier and whippet dog crossbreed who spent his short life on the Mary Rose. Preservation of the Mary Rose and her contents was an essential part of the project from the start. Though many artefacts, especially those that were buried in silt, had been preserved, the long exposure to an underwater environment had rendered most of them sensitive to exposure to air after recovery.
Archaeologists and conservators had to work in tandem from the start to prevent deterioration of the artefacts. Passive storage depended on the type of material that the object was made of, and could vary considerably. Smaller objects from the most common material, wood, were sealed in polyethylene bags to preserve moisture. Timbers and other objects that were too large to be wrapped were stored in unsealed water tanks.
Growth of fungi and microbes that could degrade wood were controlled by various techniques, including low-temperature storage, chemicals, and in the case of large objects, common pond snails that consumed wood-degrading organisms but not the wood itself.
Other organic materials such as leather, skin and textiles were treated similarly, by keeping them moist in tanks or sealed plastic containers. Bone and ivory was desalinated to prevent damage from salt crystallisation, as was glass, ceramic and stone. Iron, copper and copper alloy objects were kept moist in a sodium sesquicarbonate solution to prevent oxidisation and reaction with the chlorides that had penetrated the surface.
Alloys of lead and pewter are inherently stable in the atmosphere and generally require no special treatment. Silver and gold were the only materials that required no special passive storage. Conserving the hull of the Mary Rose was the most complicated and expensive task for the project. The substance polyethylene glycol PEG had been used before on archaeological wood, and was during the s being used to conserve the Vasa.
After almost ten years of small-scale trials on timbers, an active three-phase conservation programme of the hull of the Mary Rose began in During the first phase, which lasted from tothe wood was sprayed with low-molecular-weight PEG to replace the water in the cellular structure of the wood. From toa higher-molecular-weight PEG was used to strengthen the mechanical properties of the outer surface layers. The third phase consisted of a controlled air drying ending in After the decision to raise the Mary Rose, discussions ensued as to where she would eventually go on permanent display.
The east end of Portsea Island at Eastney emerged as an early alternative, but was rejected because of parking problems and the distance from the dockyard where she was originally built. At one point a county councillor even threatened to withdraw promised funds if the dockyard site became more than an interim solution. As costs for the project mounted, there was a debate in the Council chamber and in the local paper The News as to whether the money could be spent more appropriately.
Although author David Childs writes that in the early s "the debate was as a fiery one", the project was never seriously threatened because of the great symbolic importance of the Mary Rose to the naval history of both Portsmouth and England. Since the mids, the hull of the Mary Rose has been kept in a covered dry dock while undergoing conservation.
Although the hull has been open to the public for viewing, the need for keeping the ship saturated first with water and later a polyethylene glycol PEG solution meant that, beforevisitors were separated from the hull by a glass barrier. Bythe specially built ship hall had been visited by over seven million visitors since it first opened on 4 Octoberjust under a year after it was successfully raised. A separate Mary Rose Museum was housed in a structure called No. The construction has been challenging because the museum has been built over the ship in the dry dock which is a listed monument.
During construction of the museum, conservation of the hull continued inside a sealed "hotbox". In April the polyethylene glycol sprays were turned off and the process of controlled airdrying began.
In the "hotbox" was removed and for the first time sincethe ship was revealed dry. This new museum displays most of the artefacts recovered from within the ship in context with the conserved hull. Since opening it has been visited by overpeople.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from The Mary Rose. Carrack-type warship of the English Tudor navy. For the play by J. Barrie, see Mary Rose play. For the American scientist and educator, see Mary Swartz Rose. The remnants of the Mary Rose undergoing conservation in Portsmouth.
Main article: War of the League of Cambrai. Main article: Italian War of — Main article: Battle of the Solent. Main article: Mary Rose Museum. For more discussion supporting the suddenness and violent nature of the sinking, see also Julie Gardiner, "The 'Good Shippe' Mary Rose : an Introduction" in Gardinerpp. Southsea Castle.
Portsmouth City Council. For a detailed account of Dominic Fontana's theory on the sinking see "The Cowdray engravings and the loss of the Mary Rose". For a detailed account of the Deanes see John Bevan, The Infernal Diver: the lives of John and Charles Deane, their invention of the diving helmet, and its first application to salvage, treasure hunting, civil engineering and military uses.
Submex, London. Current Archeology. Current Publishing. Retrieved 11 March British Broadcasting Corporation. The Mary Rose. Archived from the original on 8 March Smith 24 August Ars Technica. Retrieved 25 August Mary Rose Trust. Retrieved 21 July Archived from the original on 8 August Ships and vessels on the National Register of Historic Vessels. Surviving ships launched before Snyder Jr. Commons WikiProject. Underwater diving.
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