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I had school teachers that actually encouraged us to express our ideas, rather than learning by rote. As a student, Marshall saw the American civil-rights movement firsthand. Her critics have derided Marshall as an activist judge. Her admirers call her a visionary.

Marshall eventually immigrated to the United States, both to attend graduate school at Harvard and to escape persecution. But before she left South Africa for good, Marshall saw a glimpse of hope in Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, who traveled there to lend his support to the anti-apartheid struggle. Kennedy's speeches were moving, Marshall said, and she traveled with him and his entourage as he toured the divided country. Skip to main content. Close close Donate.

Close Close. BBC Newsday Value this story? Marshall retired from active service inbut remained on active duty, as required for holders of five-star rank. As Secretary of State from toMarshall advocated rebuilding Europe, a program that became known as the Marshall Planand which led to his being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. As Secretary of Defense at the start of the Korean WarMarshall worked to restore the military's confidence and morale at the end of its post-World War II demobilization and then its initial buildup for combat in Korea and operations during the Cold War.

After resigning as Defense Secretary, Marshall retired to his home in Virginia. He died in and was buried with honors at Arlington National Cemetery. George Catlett Marshall Jr. He always ranked first in military discipline and about midway academically. Prior to World War I, Marshall received various postings in the United States and the Philippinesincluding serving as an infantry platoon leader and company commander during the Philippine—American War and other guerrilla uprisings.

After another tour of duty in the Philippines, Marshall returned to the United States in to serve as aide-de-camp to the commander of the Western Department, former Army chief of staff Major General J. Franklin Bellat the Presidio in San Francisco. During World War IMarshall had roles as a planner of both training and operations.

In the summer ofhe was assigned as assistant chief of staff for operations on the staff of the 1st Division. McNair ; [18] the two formed a personal and professional bond that they maintained for the rest of their careers. After arriving in France, Marshall served with the 1st Division on the St. Mihiel, Picardy, and Cantigny fronts. In mid, he was posted to the headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forcewhere he worked closely with his mentor, General John Joseph Pershingand was a key planner of American operations.

He was instrumental in the planning and coordination of the Meuse-Argonne Offensivewhich contributed to the defeat of the German Army on the Western Front in Inhe became an aide-de-camp to General Pershing. Between andwhile Pershing was Army Chief of StaffMarshall worked in a number of positions in the army, focusing on training and teaching modern, mechanized warfare. Inas a lieutenant colonelhe was appointed assistant commandant of the Infantry School at Fort Benningwhere he initiated major changes to modernize command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II.

Marshall placed Edwin F. Harding in charge of MP3) Infantry School's publications, and Harding became editor [27] : 41 of Infantry in Battlea book that codified the lessons of World War I. Infantry in Battle is still used as an officer's training manual in the Infantry Officer's Course and was the training manual for most of the infantry officers and leaders of World War II.

He was senior instructor and chief of staff for the Illinois National Guard's 33rd Division from November to August Marshall commanded the 5th Brigade of the 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks in VancouverWashington from toand was promoted to brigadier general in October In addition to obtaining a long-sought and significant troop command, traditionally viewed as an indispensable step to the pinnacle of the US Army, Marshall was also responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps MP3) camps in Oregon and southern Washington.

As post commander Marshall made a concerted effort to cultivate relations with the city of Portland and to enhance the image of the US Army in the region. With the CCC, he initiated a series of measures to improve the morale of the participants and to make the experience beneficial in their later life. He started a newspaper for the CCC region that proved a vehicle to promote CCC successes, and he initiated a variety of programs that developed their skills and improved their health.

Marshall's inspections of the CCC camps gave him and his wife Katherine the chance to enjoy the beauty of the American northwest and made that assignment what he called "the most instructive service I ever had, and the most interesting.

Roosevelt proposed a plan to provide aircraft to England in support of the war effort, lacking forethought with regard to logistical support or training. With all other attendees voicing support of the plan, Marshall was the only person to voice his disagreement. Marshall also spoke in favor of a large ground army although Roosevelt had said a large air force would be a greater deterrent to enemies than a large army.

Marshall was then only 34th in seniority and outranked by 21 major-generals and 11 brigadier-generals; but he was the fifth-ranking officer under an unwritten rule that the chief of staff should be able to serve a four-year term before reaching Marshall was promoted to general and sworn in as chief of staff on September 1,the same day the German Army launched its invasion of Poland.

So Marshall got "all he wanted and more". Though he had never actually led troops in combat, Marshall was a skilled organizer with a talent for inspiring other officers. EisenhowerJacob L. DeversGeorge S. PattonTerry de la Mesa Allen Sr. Faced with the necessity of turning an army of former civilians into a force of over eight million soldiers by a fortyfold increase within three yearsMarshall directed McNair to focus efforts on rapidly producing large numbers of soldiers.

With the exception of airborne forces, Marshall approved McNair's concept of an abbreviated training schedule for men entering Army land forces training, particularly in regard to basic infantry skills, weapons proficiency, and combat tactics.

Without the input of experienced British or Allied combat officers on the nature of modern warfare and enemy tactics, many resorted to formulaic training methods emphasizing static defense and orderly large-scale advances by motorized convoys over improved roads. Originally, Marshall had planned a division Army with a system of unit rotation such as practiced by the British and other Allies.

The new men were often not even proficient in the use of their own weapons, and once in combat, could not receive enough practical instruction from veterans before being killed or wounded, sometimes within the first few days. Incidents of soldiers going AWOL from combat duty as well as battle fatigue and self-inflicted injury rose rapidly during the last eight months of the war with Germany.

Marshall's abilities to pick competent field commanders during the early part of the war was decidedly mixed. He was instrumental in advancing the careers of the highly capable generals such as Eisenhower, Bradley, Patton, Krueger and Clark. A notable exception was his recommendation of the swaggering Fredendall to Eisenhower for a major command in the American invasion of North Africa during Operation Torch. Marshall was especially fond of Fredendall, describing him as "one of the best" and remarking in a staff meeting when his name was mentioned, "I like that man; you can see determination Free Africa (L.Marshall Ragga Edit) - L.

Marshall - Free Africa (File over his face. Both men would come to regret that decision, as Fredendall was the leader of U. Army forces at the disastrous Battle of the Kasserine Pass. Army and Army Air Forces for the invasion of the European continent. Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe. He initially scheduled Operation Overlord for April 1,but met with strong opposition from Winston Churchill, who convinced Roosevelt to commit troops to Allied invasion of Sicily for the invasion of Italy.

Some authors think that World War II could have ended earlier if Marshall had had his way; others think that such an invasion would have meant utter failure. While Marshall enjoyed considerable success in working with Congress and Roosevelt, he refused to lobby for the position.

President Roosevelt didn't want to lose his presence in the States. He told Marshall, "I didn't feel I could sleep at ease if you were out of Washington. On December 16,Marshall became the first American Army general to be promoted to five-star rankthe newly created General of the Army — the American equivalent rank to field marshal.

He was the second American to be promoted to a five-star rank, as William Leahy was promoted to fleet admiral the previous day. He was characterized as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill. Time magazine named Marshall Man of the Year for Marshall resigned his post of chief of staff on November 10,but did not retire, as regulations stipulate that Generals of the Army remain on active duty for life.

It amassed 25, pages of documents, 40 volumes, and included nine reports and investigations, eight of which had been previously completed. These reports included criticism of Marshall for delay in sending General Walter Shortthe Army commander in Hawaii, important information obtained from intercepted Japanese diplomatic messages.

The report also criticized Marshall's lack of knowledge of the readiness of the Hawaiian Command during November and December Ten days after the attack, Lt. General Short and Admiral Husband E. Kimmelcommander of the Navy at Pearl Harbor, were both relieved of their duties. The final report of the Joint Committee did not single out or fault Marshall.

While the report was critical of the overall situation, the committee noted that subordinates had failed to pass on important information to their superiors, including Marshall. A secret report into the Army's role, the Clausen Report was authorized by Secretary Stimson ; it was critical of Short and also of Colonel Bratton who, he concluded, arrived later on Sunday morning than he initially claimed during testimony and invented a story about not being able to get in touch with Marshall which "nearly destroyed" Marshall.

Mao promised Marshall the Communists would give up armed revolution, embrace the old enemies, and build a democracy in China. Marshall hoped for a coalition government, and toasted their common future. The Americans assumed that if the Communist won the Civil War, they would remain on friendly terms with the United States. Both sides rejected his proposals and the Chinese Civil War escalated, with the Communists winning in His mission a failure, he returned to the United States in January After Marshall's return to the U.

He became the spokesman for the State Department's ambitious plans to rebuild Europe. On June 5, in a speech [54] at Harvard Universityhe outlined the American proposal. Clark Clifford had suggested to Truman that the plan be called the Truman Plan, but Truman immediately dismissed that idea and insisted that it be called the Marshall Plan. The Soviet Union forbade its satellites to participate. Marshall was again named Time' s Man of the Year for He received the Nobel Peace Prize for his post-war work inthe only career officer in the United States Army to ever receive this honor.

Truman repeatedly rejected Marshall's advice on Middle Eastern policy. Marshall felt that if the state of Israel was declared that a war would break out in the Middle East which it did in one day after Israel declared independence.

Marshall saw recognizing the Jewish state as a political move to gain Jewish support in the upcoming election, in which Truman was expected to lose to Dewey. He told President Truman in May"If you recognize the state of Israel and if I were to vote in the election, I would vote against you.

Marshall resigned from the State Department because of ill health on January 7,and the same month became chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission. Johnson and named Marshall as Secretary of Defense in September The appointment required a congressional waiver because the National Security Act of prohibited a uniformed military officer from serving in the post.

This prohibition included Marshall since individuals promoted to General of the Army are not technically retired, but remain officially on active duty even after their active service has concluded. Marshall was the first person to be granted such a waiver; inJim Mattis became the second. Marshall's main role as Secretary of Defense was to restore confidence and morale to the Defense Department while rebuilding the armed forces following their post-World War II demobilization.

Marshall worked to provide more manpower to meet the demands of both the Korean War and the Cold War in Europe. To implement his priorities Marshall brought in a new leadership team, including Robert A. Lovett as his deputy and Anna M. Rosenbergformer head of the War Manpower Commissionas assistant secretary of defense for manpower. He also worked to rebuild the relationship between the Defense and State Departments, as well as the relationship between the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Marshall participated in the post- Inchon landing discussion that led to authorizing Douglas MacArthur to conduct operations in North Korea. A secret "eyes only" signal from Marshall to MacArthur on September 29, declared the Truman administration's commitment: "We want you to feel unhampered strategically and tactically to proceed north of the 38th Parallel ". Marshall and the Joint Chiefs of Staff were generally supportive of MacArthur because they were of the view that field commanders should be able to exercise their best judgment in accomplishing the intent of their superiors.

In the debate over what to do about China's increased involvement, Marshall opposed a cease—fire on the grounds that it would make the U. In addition, Marshall argued that the U. When British Prime Minister Clement Attlee suggested diplomatic overtures to China, Marshall opposed, arguing that it was MP3) to negotiate with the Communist government. In addition, Marshall expressed concern that concessions to China would undermine confidence in the U.

When some in Congress favored expanding the war in Korea and confronting China, Marshall argued against a wider war in Korea, continuing instead to stress the importance of containing the Soviet Union during the Cold War battle for primacy in Europe. Averell Harriman to discuss whether MacArthur should be removed from command.

Harriman was emphatically in favor of MacArthur's relief, but Bradley opposed it. Marshall asked for more time to consider the matter. Acheson was in favor but did not disclose this, instead warning Truman that if he did it, MacArthur's relief would cause "the biggest fight of your administration. On 8 April, the Joint Chiefs of Staff met with Marshall, and each expressed the view that MacArthur's relief was desirable from a "military point of view," suggesting that "if MacArthur were not relieved, a large segment of our people would charge that civil authorities no longer controlled the military.

Bradley informed the President of the views of the Joint Chiefs, and Marshall added that he agreed with them. Truman wrote in his diary that "it is of unanimous opinion of all that MacArthur be relieved. All four so advise. On April 11,President Truman directed transmittal of an order to MacArthur, issued over Bradley's signature, relieving MacArthur of his assignment in Korea and directing him to turn over command to Matthew Ridgway.

In line with Marshall's view, and those of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, MacArthur's relief was looked upon by proponents as being necessary to reassert the tenet of civilian control of the military.

Marshall retired in September to his home, Dodona Manorin Leesburg, Virginia to tend to his gardens and continue his passion for horseback riding. Although he was entitled to an Official Funeral, Marshall preferred simplicity, so received a Special Military Funeral after lying in state at the Washington National Cathedral for 21 hours, guarded by representatives from all the U.

Herterformer Secretary of State Dean G. Acheson, W. Averell Harriman and Generals Omar N. Bradley, Alfred M. Gruenther and General Matthew B. His parish priest, Rev. Franklin Moss Jr. James Episcopal Church in Leesburg, Virginia conducted the chapel and graveside services, assisted by former chief chaplain and National Cathedral Canon Rev.

Luther Miller. Following a gun salute, Marshall was buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginiain a place he had picked, in Section 7, Gravebeside his first wife, Elizabeth Carter Coles — and her mother, Elizabeth Pendleton Coles — ; his second wife, Katherine Tupper Brown Marshall — would later join them.

Marshall's reputation for excellence as a military organizer and planner was recognized early in his career, and became known throughout the Army. In a performance appraisal prepared while Marshall was a lieutenant in the Philippines, his superior, Captain E. Williams responded to the routine question of whether he would want the evaluated officer to serve under his command again by writing of Marshall "Should the exigencies of active service place him in exalted command I would be glad to serve under him.

InLieutenant Colonel Johnson Hagood completed a written evaluation of Marshall's performance in which he called Marshall a military genius. Responding to the question of whether he would want his subordinate Marshall to serve under him again, Hagood wrote "Yes, but I would prefer to serve under his command.

Stimsonthe Secretary of Warpaid tribute to Marshall in front of a gathering of members of the Army staff, concluding with: "I have seen a great many soldiers in my lifetime and you, Sir, are the finest soldier I have ever known. In addition to his military success, Marshall is primarily remembered as the driving force behind the Marshall Planwhich provided billions of dollars in aid to post war Europe to restart the economies of the destroyed countries.

In recent years, the cooperation required between former European adversaries as part of the Marshall Plan has been recognized as one of the earliest factors that led to formation of the European Coal and Steel Communityand eventually the European Union, MP3).

In a television interview after leaving office, Harry S. Truman was asked which American he thought had made the greatest contribution of the preceding thirty years.

Without hesitation, Truman picked Marshall, adding "I don't think in this age in which I have lived, that there has been a man who has been a greater administrator; a man with a knowledge of military affairs equal to General Marshall.

I think he was the greatest human being who was also a great man He was a tremendous gentleman, an old fashioned institution which isn't with us anymore. George Marshall was the youngest of three siblings.

John Johnson Singer, an Army physician who died in On 15 OctoberMarshall married Katherine Boyce Tupper 8 October — 18 December ; [82] [83] Katherine Tupper was the mother of three children with Baltimore lawyer Clifton Stevenson Brown, who had been murdered by a disgruntled client in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from George Marshall, Jr. US military leader, Army Chief of Staff. For other people named George Marshall, see George Marshall disambiguation. General of the Army. Lily Carter Coles m. Katherine Boyce Tupper Brown m. All-Southern Main article: Relief of Douglas MacArthur. MP3) section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Spencer C. Tucker Marshall — Harry S.

Truman Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense — Historical Office. Army Chief of Staff, Secretary of State". Archived from the original on Retrieved Retrieved 7 September George Washington and the American Military Tradition. Bland, ed. Encyclopedia of World War II. Biography: George C. Marshall Foundation. Retrieved August 24, George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century.

Marshall: Timeline". Army" PDF. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas. Army"p. First Over There. New York: St. Memoirs of My Services in the World War, — To Conquer Hell. New York: Henry Holt. I, A—D. Three Rivers Press. Marshall's Early Career. September 12, Retrieved 9 September America's Failure in China, — Diary says it's not Mao Zedong].

Xin Hua Net. July 31, Archived from the original on January 9,


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Published in Classic Rock


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    Jun 05,  · This resource is also available through the Hathi Trust and in print form at Marshall University Libraries Special Collections Department. Subject Guide Kelli Johnson.
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    African American Genealogy Resources. Cabell County Public Library Resources: Books about African American Genealogy. Beasley, D. (). Family Pride: The Complete Guide To Tracing African-American Genealogy. B. Rose, J.M. () Black Genesis: A Resource Book For African-American Genealogy. R.
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    Aug 11,  · Chief Justice Margaret Marshall heard arguments in Supreme Judicial Court in this May file photo. (AP) Margaret Marshall's judicial legacy may be South Africa .
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    Composed by Marshall McDonald and Steven Sharp Nelson, this minute piece celebrates the great continent, Africa with full symphony orchestra, 8 percussion players, and full choir. AFRICA was commissioned and performed by the Orchestra at Southern Utah in You can view their world premiere performance on YouTube.
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    L Marshall Videos; Playlists; Community; Channels; About; Home Trending History Get YouTube Premium Get YouTube TV Best of YouTube Music Sports Gaming Movies & Shows News Live Fashion Learning Spotlight ° Video Browse channels.
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    Explore releases from Marshall at Discogs. Shop for Vinyl, CDs and more from Marshall at the Discogs Marketplace.
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