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It paid the enormous tribute of Euboic talents of gold-dust, or hundred- weights, worth fully a million sterling, and constituting about one-third of the total bullion revenue of the Asiatic provinces.

Although the exact limits of the Indian satrapy cannot be determined, we know that it was distinct from Aria HeratArachosia Kandaharand Gandaria North- western Panjab. It must have comprised, therefore, the course of the Indus from Kalabagh to the sea, including the whole of Sind, and perhaps included a considerable portion of the Panjab east of the Indus. The city of Kaspatyros in the lb. If the Euboic talent called Kaspapyros, a city of the be taken as equivalent to 78, not Gandharians, by Hekataios.

The 70, minae, the figures given by site cannot be identified, and it is Herodotus will tally. Gandhara the total bullion revenue for the was the modern Peshawar District Asiatic provinces including a small and some adjacent territory. The Euboic talent weighed in the lists in the Persepolis and lb. The 20, lb. This fact largely explains the surprising value of the tribute paid by the twentieth satrapy. When Ajatasatru's blood-stained life ended cir.

The Buddhist books omit the intermediate name, and represent Udaya as the son and immediate successor of Ajatasatru. It is difficult to decide which version is correct, but on the whole the authority of the Puranas seems to be preferable in this case.

If Darsaka or Harshaka was a reality nothing is known about him. The reign of Udaya may be assumed to have begun about Udaya, B. His successors, Nandivardhana and Mahanandin, according b. Mahanandin, the last of the dynasty, is said to have had by a Sudra, or low-caste, woman a son named Mahapadma Nanda, who usurped the throne, and so estab- lished the Nanda family or dynasty. This event may be b. At this point all our authorities become unintelligible and The incredible. These two genera- tions are supposed to have reigned for a century, which Rawlinson, Herodotus, vol.

For the Indian contingent in in the Puranas. The Buddhists Xerxes' army, clad in cotton gar- call him Udayi Bhadda Udayl- ments, and armed with cane bows bhadrakaand represent him as and iron-tipped cane arrows, see the son of Ajatasatru, whose grand- Herod. Buddha, p. The building of and its Tributaries' J.

The Jains, doing still greater violence to reason, extend the duration of the dynasty to years, while the Buddhist Mahavamsa, DTpavamsa, and Asokavadana deepen the confusion by hopelessly muddled and contradictory stories not worth repeating. Some powerful motive must have existed for the distortion of the history of the so-called 'Nine Nandas' in all forms of the tradition, but it is not easy to make even a plausible guess at the nature of that motive. Greek The Greek and Roman historians, who derived their information either from Megasthenes or the companions of Alexander, and thus rank as contemporary witnesses reported at second hand, throw a little light on the real history.

When Alexander was stopped in his advance at the Hyphasis B. This monarch was said to command a force of 20, horse,foot, 2, chariots, and 3, or 4, elephants. The reigning king was alleged to be extremely unpopular, owing to his wickedness and base origin. He was, it is said, the son of a barber, who having become the paramour of the queen of the last legitimate sovereign, con- trived the king's death, and, under pretence of acting as guardian to his sons, got them into his power, and extermi- nated the royal family.

After their extermination he begot the son who was reigning at the time of Alexander's ' Curtius, bk. The Vishnu Purana brands the first Nanda, ' Mahapadma, as an avaricious person, whose reign marked the end of the Kshattriya, or high born, princes, and the beginning of the rule of those of low degree, ranking as Sudras. By putting all the hints together we may conclude with Summary, tolerable certainty that the Nanda family was really of base origin, that it acquired power by the assassination of the legitimate king, and retained possession of the throne for two generations only.

The great military power of the usurpers, as attested by Greek testimony, was the result of the conquests effected by Bimbisara and Ajatsisatru, and presumably continued by their successors ; but the limits of the Nanda dominions cannot be defined, nor can the dates of the dynasty be determined with accuracy.

If that era ran fromthe ascribed to Asoka were attributed date of the inscription would be by another tradition to Nanda B. There is no difficulty in believing the tradition that the revolution involved the extermination of all related to the fallen monarch, for revolutions in the East are not effected without much shedding of blood. Nor is there any reason to discredit the statements that the usurper was attacked by a confederacy of the northern powers, including Kashmir, and that the attack failed owing to the Machiavellian in- trigues of Chandragupta's Brahman adviser, DJ Tandu 1.99b is variously named Chanakya, Kautilya, and Vishnugupta.

The dominions of the Magadha crown were then extensive, certainly including the territories of the nations called Prasii and Gangaridae by the Greeks, and probably comprising at least the kingdoms of Kosala and Benares, as well as Anga and Magadha proper. Whether that anecdote be true or synchronous with the Seleukidan, sage is nearly all illegible Bhagwan the date would be B.

Kharavela repaired a In his twelfth a very interesting and detailed year he defeated the king of account of the revolution, but, un- Magadha, either Pushyamitra or fortunately, the date of this work is Agnimitra Sunga, and in his account quite uncertain.

TJnluckily the pas- ch. He assumed the command of the native revolt against the foreigner, and destroyed most of the Macedonian garrisons. He had thus become the master of north-western India before he attempted the revolution in Magadha ; and when that enterprise was ac- complished, he was undoubtedly the paramount power in India. But before the story of the deeds of Chandragupta Maurya and the descendants who succeeded him on the throne of Magadha can be told, we must pause to unfold the wondrous tale of the Indian adventure of ' Philip's war- like son.

Duration of reigns. Anterior limit of date. The fixed point from which to reckon backwards is the year b. Although the fact that the Saisunaga dynasty consisted of ten kings may be admitted, the duration assigned by the Puranas to the d3masty as a whole, and to some of the reigns, cannot be accepted. Experience proves that in a long series an average of twenty-five years to a generation is rarely attained, and that this average is still more rarely exceeded in a series of reigns as distinguished from generations.

The resultant average, years per reign, maybe taken as the maximum possible, and consequently years are the maximum allowable for the ten Saisunaga reigns. As stated in the text, the traditional periods assigned to the Nanda dynasty of or years for two generations are abso- lutely incredible. A reasonable period of forty years may be provisionally assumed. But of course the true date may be, and probably is, somewhat later, because it is unlikely that twelve reigns ten Saisunaga and two Nanda attained an average of years.

Ajatasatru is assigned twenty-four, twenty-five, or twenty- seven years by various Puranas, and thirty-two years by Tibetan and Ceylonese Buddhist tradition. Considering the extensive conquests attributed to this king, it is not unreasonable to accept the longer period of thirty-two years as a near approxi- mation to the truth. Udaya, who is mentioned in the Buddhist DJ Tandu 1.99b, and was memorable as the builder of Pataliputra, is assigned a reign of thirty-three years by the Vayu and Matsya Purdnas, which is credible, and may pass as true.

If he existed, the reign of twenty-five years allotted to him may be accepted. The Vdyu and Matsya Purdnas respectively assign eighty-five and eighty-three years to the reigns of kings numbers nine and ten together.

These figures are improbably high, and it is un- likely that the two reigns actually occupied more than forty or fifty years. The evidence as far as it goes, and at best it does not amount to much, indicates that the average length of the later reigns was in excess of the normal figure.

We may assume, therefore, that the first four reigns, about which nothing is known, were short, and did not exceed some eighty years collectively. An assumption that these reigns were longer would unduly prolong the total duration of the dynasty, the begirming of which must be dated about b. There is also no apparent reason to doubt that Mahavira pre- deceased Buddha by a few years, and that both holy men died early in the reign of Ajatasatru.

The deaths of these saints form ' Jacobi, Introd. Hoernle has kindly supplied p. Fixed datum thus obtained. It might therefore be expected that the traditional dates of these two events would supply at once the desired clue to the dynastic chronology.

But close examination of the con- flicting traditions raises difficulties. The year B. The Ceylonese date, b. Fleet are right in interpreting the figure at the end of Asoka's Minor Rock Edicts as intended to express the number of years elapsed since the date of the death of Gautama Buddha ; and if, as seems probable. Fleet is right in his reading and translation of those edicts ', then the accepted date for the death of Buddha in Asoka's time must have been b.

That date may be confidently accepted as a very close approximation to the absolute truth, for it is very unlikely that, only two centuries and a half after the event, Asoka was ignorant of the true date.

From all the foregoing arguments the opposite chronological table may be constructed : — ' Burgess, Ind. Hoernle ibid, xx, discusses the contradictory Jain dates, and observes that although the Digam- bara and Svetarabara sects agree in placing the death of Mahavira years before Vikrama, whose era begins in 57 b. The books indicate thatoror B.

See also ibid, ii, ; be, ; xi, ; xiii, ; xxi, 57; and xxiii,for further discussion of Jain chronology. Note especially the statements that Sthiilabhadra, ninth successor of Mahavira, who was mantriii of the ninth Nanda, died either or years after the death of Mahavira, the same year in which Nanda was slain by Chandragupta ibid, xi, Meru- tunga dates Pushyamitra, who came to the throne cir. Length of Reign. Probab le date of Accession. Vayu P. Harshaka 25 25 Nothing known.

Nothing known. RockhiU, Life of the Buddha, pp. He is said to have visited Khotan in andA. Towards the close of spring in the year B. The marked on the India Office map of exact position cannot be deter- India, is 13, feet. The strength mined, but its site may be marked of the force that crossed the Hindi! The statement Houpian, near Charikar, some of Plutarch [Alexander, ch. Here the king divided his forces.

During this march eastward, Hephaistion "u-'fg and Perdikkas were accompanied by the king of Taxila, a great city beyond the Indus, who had lost no time in obeying Alexander's summons, and in placing his services at the disposal of the invader. Other chiefs on the western side of the Indus adopted the same course, and, with the help of these native potentates, the Macedonian generals were enabled to make satisfactory progress in the task of bridging the Indus, which had been committed to them by their sovereign.

India, Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan, pp. Certain d'ExtrSme Orient. Alexan- der's flanking march. Details of his route unknown. Second division of field-force. Alexander in person assumed the command of the second corps or division, consisting of the infantry known as hyp- aspists, the foot guards, the Agrianian or Thracian light infantry, the archers, the mounted lancers, and the rest of the horse guards.

With this force he undertook a flanking movement through the difficult hill country north of the Kabul river, in order to subdue the fierce tribes which inhabited, as they still inhabit, that region ; and thus to secure his communications, and protect his army from attacks on the flank and rear. The guesses of Cunning- ham and other writers are equally unsatisfactory.

I do not agree with Mr. It is, however, certain that he used one of the regular passes, which remain un- changed, and by which alone Bajaur territory can be entered. Raverty describes, from native in- formation, two routes from Kabul to Bajaur ; and it may well be that Alexander followed the 'left-hand,' or eastern one, which goes through a village named lulz Danahi, where two roads diverge, of which one leads to Chitral, and the other to the Shahr, or capital of Bajaur Notes, pp.

Krateros, having completely executed his task in the Kunar valley, now rejoined his master; and measures were con- certed for the reduction of the tribes further east, whose sub- jugation was indispensable before an advance into India could be made with safety. The perfection of the arrangements by which Alex- ander maintained communication with his remote European base is strikingly illustrated by the fact that he selected the best and handsomest of the captured cattle, and sent them to Macedonia for use in agriculture.

A fancied connexion with Dionysos and the sacred Mount Nysa. An attempt to take the town by assault having failed by reason of the depth of the protecting river, Alexander was preparing to reduce it by blockade when the speedy submission of the inhabitants rendered further operations unnecessary.

They are alleged to have craved his clemency on the ground that they were akin to Dionysos and the Greeks, because the ivy and vine grew in their country, and the triple-peaked mountain which overshadowed their town was no other than Mount Meros.

Alexander, who found such fancies useful as a stimulant to his home-sick troops, did not examine the evidence for the kinship with Dionysos in too critical a spirit, but was glad to accept the Nysaean appeals and to exercise a gracious clemency. In order to gratify his own curiosity, and to give some Revels. The chants and dances of the natives, the ancestors of the Kafirs of the present day, bore sufficient resemblance to the Bacchanalian rites of Hellas to justify the claims made by the Nysaeans, and to encourage the soldiers in their belief that, although far from home, they had at last found a people who shared their religion and might be regarded as kinsmen.

Alexander humoured the convenient delusion and allowed his troops to enjoy with the help of their native friends a ten days' revel in the jungles.

The Nysaeans, on their part, showed their gratitude for the clemency which they had experienced by contributing a contingent of three hundred horsemen, who remained with Alexander throughout the whole period of his advance, and were not sent home until October, B. Iviii ; Straho, tively recent Buddhist times. XV, The conjectures concern- The lower spurs and valleys of the ing the identity of Nysa collected Koh-i-Mor where the ancient city in McCrindle's Note G are un- of Nysa or Nuson once stood, satisfactory.

Sir H. Holdich, Apparently it exists no longer whose knowledge of the frontier is above ground, though it may be vmsurpassed, has been more sue- found in the maps of thirty years cessfij, and has established the ago, figuring as rather an important position of Nysa with tolerable cer- place under its old name. Haidar are descendants of those The other sum- him in consequence. The Mor "Meros " of the Classicsfrom three peaks are visible from Pesha- such ancient periods that the Make- war.

Quitting the Bajaur territory, Alexander crossed the Gouraios Panjkora river, with a body of picked regiments, including, as usual, a large proportion of mounted troops, and entered the Assakenian territory, in order to attack Massaga, the greatest city of those parts and the seat of the sovereign power. On the east, an impetuous mountain stream, the Suwat river, flowing between steep banks, barred access ; while, on the south and west, gigantic rocks, deep chasms, and treacherous morasses impeded the approach of an assailing force.

Curtius, viii, While reconnoitring these formidable defences, and considering his plan of attack, Alexander was again wounded by an arrow. The wound was not very serious, and did not prevent him from continuing the active supervision of the siege operations, which were designed and controlled throughout by his master mind. Commanded by such a general the meanest soldier becomes Storm of a hero.

The troops laboured with such zeal that within fortress. Tour in Buner, p. Minglaur, ruins. The Greek and Roman which has not been closely ex- vpriters spell the name variously, amined by any European visitor as Massaga, Massaka, Mazaga, since the days of Alexander, was and Masoga.

Alexander, by a special agreement, had granted these men their lives on condition that they should change sides and take service in his ranks.

In pursuance of this agreement, they were allowed to retire and encamp on a small hill facing, and about nine miles 80 stadia distant from, the Macedonian camp. The mercenaries being unwilling to aid the foreigner in the sub- jugation of their countrymen, desired to evade the unwelcome obligation which they had incurred, and proposed to slip away by night and return to their homes. Alexander, having received information of their design, suddenly attacked the Indians while they reposed in fancied security and inflicted severe loss upon them.

Recovering from their surprise, the mercenaries formed themselves into a hollow circle, with the women and children in the centre, and offered a desperate resistance, in which the women took an active part. At last, the gallant defenders were overpowered by superior numbers, and, in the words of an ancient historian, ' met a glorious death which they would have disdained to exchange for a life with dishonour.

This incident, which has been severely condemned by various writers, ancient and modern, as a disgraceful breach of faith by Alexander, does not seem to have been, as supposed by Diodorus, the outcome of implacable enmity felt by the king against the mercenaries.

The slaughter of ' Arrian iv, 27 speaks of ' the mother and daughter of Assake- nos. Curtius viii, 10 states that ' Assacanus, its previous sover- eign, had lately died, and his mother Cleophis now ruled the city and the realm. AORNOS 49 the contingent was rather, as represented by Arrian, the tremendous penalty for a meditated breach of faith on the part of the Indians, and, if this explanation be true, the penalty cannot be regarded as altogether undeserved.

While the accession of seven thousand brave and disciplined troops would have been a welcome addition to Alexander's small army, the addition of such a force to the enemy in the plains would have been a serious impediment to his advance ; and he was, I think, justified in protecting himself against such a formidable increase of the enemy's strength. The desire of Alexander to capture this position, believed to be impregnable, was based upon military exigencies, and fired by a legend that the demi-god, Herakles, whom he claimed as an ancestor, had been baffled by the defences.

A single path gave access to the summit, which was well supplied with water, and com- prised arable land requiring the labour of a thousand men for its cultivation.

Different nearer the truth than Arrian's esti- people will necessarily formdifferent mate of stadia, DJ Tandu 1.99b. Recon- naissance. Construc- tion of approach.

Before undertaking the siege of this formidable stronghold, Alexander, with his habitual foresight, secured his rear by placing garrisons in the towns of Ora, Massaga, Bazira, and Orobatis, in the hills of Suwat and Buner. He further isolated the fortress by personally marching down into the plains, probably through the Shahkot pass ', and receiving the submission of the important city of Peuke- laotis Charsaddaand the surrounding territory, now known as the Yusufzi country. During this operation he was assisted by two local chiefs.

He then made his way somehow to Embolima, the modern Amb, a small town on the Indus, at the foot of Aornos, and there established a depot under the command of Krateros. In case the assault should fail, and the siege be converted into a blockade, this depot was intended to serve as a base for protracted operations should such prove to be necessary.

Having thus deliberately made his dispositions for the siege, Alexander spent two days in careful personal recon- naissance of the position with the aid of a small force, chiefly consisting of light-armed troops.

Assisted by local guides, whose services were secured by liberal reward, Ptolemy, the son of Lagos, secured a valuable foothold on the eastern spur of the mountain, where he entrenched his men. An attempt made by the king to support him having been frustrated, this failure led to a vigorous attack by the Indians on Ptolemy's entrenchments, which was repulsed after a hard fight.

Examination of the ground showed that a direct attack was impossible until some of the surrounding ravines should be filled up. Plenty of timber being available in the adjoining forests, Alexander resolved to use this material to form a pathway.

He himself threw the first trunk into the ravine, and his act was greeted with a loud cheer signifying the keenness of the troops, who could not shrink from any labour, however severe, to which their king was the first to put his hand.

The success of this operation convinced the garrison that the capture of the citadel was merely a question of time, and negotiations for capitulation on terms were begun. The besieged, being more anxious to gain time for escape than to conclude a treaty, evacuated the rock during the night, and attempted to slip away unobserved in the dark- ness.

But the unsleeping vigilance of Alexander detected the movement, and partially defeated their plans. Placing himself at the head of seven hundred picked men, he clam- bered up the cliff the moment the garrison began to retire and slew many. In this way the virgin fortress, which even Herakles had Mace- failed to win, became the prize of Alexander.

The king, garrison justly proud of his success, oflFered sacrifice and worship to posted, the gods, dedicated altars to Athene and Nike, and built a fort for the accommodation of the garrison which he quartered on the mountain. The command of this important post was entrusted to Sisikottos Sasiguptaa Hindu, who long before had deserted from the Indian contingent attached to the army of Bessus, the rebel satrap of Bactria, and had since proved himself a faithful officer in the Macedonian service.

He then slowly forced his way through the forests down to the bridge-head at Ohind. Bridge at Opinions have differed concerning the location of the bridge over the Indus, and most writers have been inclined to place it at Attock Atakwhere the river is narrowest.

But the recent investigations of M. Foucher have clearly established the fact that the bridge, probably constructed of boats, must have been at Ohind or Und, sixteen miles above January, Attock. Having arrived at the bridge-head, Alexander sacrificed to the gods on a magnificent scale, and gave his February, army thirty days of much needed rest, amusing them with games and gymnastic contests '.

The position of Abhisara, v, ; and McCrindJe, op. The line of march from been correctly defined for the first Aornos Mahaban is not known, time by Dr. Stein, who writes that " Curtius viii, 13 is the authority ' Darvabhisara [i.

Darva and for the fifteen or sixteen marches, Abhisara] comprised the whole His words are : ' Having left this tract of the lower and middle hills pass [PAmbela], he arrived after lying between the Vitasta Jihlam the sixteenth encampment at the or Hydaspes and the Candrabhaga river Indus. The ancient road to India eluded in Darvabhisara. One from the Kabul river vaUey followed passage would restrict the appUca- a circuitous route through Puru- tion of the term to the lower hills.

The limits of the Kashmir State, as direct route to Attock has been defined in recent times. Abhisara made practicable only in modern used to be erroneously identified times. The lately deceased king had met the invader in the previous year at Nikaia and tendered the submission of his kingdom. This tender was now renewed on behalf of his son by the embassy, and was supported by a contingent of horse and the gift of valuable supplies comprising 30 elephants, 3, fat oxen, more than 10, sheep, and talents of silver.

The ready submission of the rulers of Taxila is explained by the fact that they desired Alexander's help against their enemies in the neighbouring states. A curious incident marked the last day's march to Taxila. Curious AVhen four or. In the begin- Major Raverty considers Uhand to ning of spring they descended to be the correct spelling, and this the plains and the great city of form is the nearest to the Sanskrit. During the winter they Journal Adatiqwe forp.

Rain ' Curtius, viii, The coimtry fell for the first time while they of Poros lay between the Hydaspes were at Taxila. The rain at XV, Taxila must have been due to a ' The chronology is determined passing storm, because the regular by Strabo, xv, 17, who states, on rainy season does not begin be- the authority of Aristoboulos, the fore June. Submis- sion of Ambhi. He supposed that treacherous opposition was about to be offered, and had begun to make arrangements to attack the Indians, when Ambhi galloped forward with a few attendants and explained that the display of force was intended as an honour, and that his entire army was at Alexander's disposal.

When the misunderstanding had been removed the Macedonian force continued its advance and was entertained at the city with royal magnificence. The Sanskrit form is Tak- DJ Tandu 1.99b. The ruins at Shahdheri, eight miles south-east of Hasan Abdal, and in the surrounding vil- lages, have been roughly surveyed and described by Cunningham Reports, ii,but deserve more systematic and detailed ex- amination.

So far as known, the remains seem to be Buddhist, but the vestiges of many pre-Buddhist edifices probably still remain. The Buddhist establishments were in a state of decay when the Chinese traveller, Hiuen Tsang, visited them in the seventh century a. Beal, ii,and the kingdom was then tributary to Kashmir. The city was stiU an important place about b. The Jataka stories are full of references to the fame of Taxila as a university town, e. The Susima Jataka places it in the kingdom of Gandhara, i.

Most of the Jatakas are probably anterior to Alexander's time. I and II, 1, 2. The early copper coinage of Taxila is described in pp. This lavish generosity, although displeasing to Alexander's Macedonian officers, was probably prompted more by policy than by sentiment.

It purchased a contingent of 5, men, and secured the fidelity of a most useful ally Q. Curtius, viii, 12 ; Diodorus, xvii, 86 ; Arrian, v, 8. While Alexander was at Taxila, the hill chieftain of Raja of Abhisara, who really intended to join Poros in repelling the andPoros invader Diodorus, xvii, 87sent envoys who professed to surrender to Alexander all that their master possessed.

This mission was favourably received, and Alexander hoped that Poros would display complaisance equal to that of his ally. But a summons sent requiring him to do homage and pay tribute was met with the proud answer that he would indeed come to his frontier to meet the invader, but at the head of an army ready for battle. The march from Taxila to Jihlam on the Hydaspes, m a south-easterly direction, a distance of about a hundred or a hundred and ten miles, according to the route followed, brought the army over difficult ground and probably occupied a fortnight.

The hot season was at its height, but to Alexander all seasons were equally fit for campaigning, and he led his soldiers on and on from conquest to conquest, regardless of the snows of the mountains and the scorching heat of the plains. He arrived at Jihlam early in May, and found the river May, already flooded by the melting of the snow in the hills. On his arrival, he found the army of Poros, fifty thousand strong, drawn up on the opposite bank.

It was obvious that the horses of the cavalry, the arm upon which the Macedonian commander placed his reliance, could not be induced to clamber up the bank of a flooded river in the face of a host of elephants, and that some device for evading this difficulty must be sought. Provision Alexander, therefore, resolved, in the words of Arrian, to ' steal a passage. Although such dilatory tactics did not commend themselves to the impetuous spirit of Alex- ander, he endeavoured to lull the vigilance of the enemy by the public announcement that he intended to await the change of season, and gave a colour of truth to the declara- tion by employing his troops in foraging expeditions and the collection of a great store of provisions.

Rafts, galleys, and smaller boats were secretly prepared and hidden away among the woods and islands in the upper reaches of the river where it escapes from the mountains. These preliminaries occupied six or seven weeks, during which time the rains had broken, and the violence of the flood had increased. Careful study of the ground had convinced Alexander that the best chance of crossing in safety was to be found near a sharp bend in the river about sixteen miles marching distance above his camp, at a point where his embarkation would be concealed NIGHT MARCH 57 by a bluff and an island covered with forest.

Having arrived at this decision, Alexander acted upon it, not only, as Arrian justly remarks, with 'marvellous audacity,' but with con- summate prudence and precaution. Half-way between the standing camp and the chosen crossing-place three generals were stationed with the mercenary cavalry and infantry, and had orders to cross the river as soon as they should perceive the Indians to be fairly engaged in action.

All sections of the army were kept in touch by a chain of sentries posted along the bank. When all these precautionary arrangements had been Night completed, Alexander in person took command of a picked force of about 11, or 12, men, including the foot guards, hypaspist infantry, mounted archers, and 5, cavalry of various kinds, with which to effect the passage.

In order to escape observation, he marched by night at some distance from the bank, and his movements were further concealed by a violent storm of rain and thunder which broke during the march. He arrived unperceived at the appointed place and found the fleet of galleys, boats, and rafts in readiness. The enemy had no suspicion of what was happening until the fleet appeared in the open river beyond the wooded island, and Alexander disembarked his force at daybreak without opposition.

But when he had landed, he was disappointed to find that yet another deep channel lay in front, which must be crossed. With much difficulty a ford was found, and the infantry struggled through breast- deep in the stream, while the horses swam with only their heads above water.

The sole practicable road from the camp of Poros involved a wide detour, which rendered prompt opposition impossible, and Alexander was able to deploy his dripping troops on the mainland before any attempt could be made to stop him. Indian army. This inadequate force was speedily routed with the loss of killed, and of all the chariots. Fugitives carried the disastrous news to the camp of Poros, who moved out with the bulk of his army to give battle, leaving a guard to protect his baggage against Krateros, who lay in wait on the opposite bank.

The Indian army deployed on the only ground available, the plain now known as Karri, girdled on the north and east by low hills, and about five miles in width at its broadest part.

The surface was a firm sandy soil well adapted for military movements even in the rainy season. The A stately force it was with which the Indian monarch moved forth to defend his country against the audacious invader from the west.

The chief reliance of Poros was on these monsters who would, it was calculated, terrify the foreign soldiers and render the dreaded cavalry unmanageable. Both flanks were protected by cavalry with chariots in front. The cavalry numbered 4, and the chariots Each chariot was drawn by four horses, and carried six men, of whom two were archers, stationed one on each side of the vehicle, two were shield- bearers, and two were charioteers, who in the stress of battle ' See plan of the battle.

The indebted for it to my son, Lieut, number of ranks is determined by A. Smith, 5th P. The plan plotted the details to scale, shows exactly elephants. The infantry were all armed with a broad and heavy two- Indian handed sword, and a long DJ Tandu 1.99b of undressed ox-hide. The bow is described as being ' made of equal length with the man who bears it. This they rest upon the ground, and pressing against it with their left foot thus discharge the arrow having drawn the string backwards : for the shaft they use is little short of being three yards long, and there is nothing which can resist an Indian archer's shot — neither shield nor breastplate, nor any stronger defence, if such there be ' Arrian, Indika, ch.

But great as was the power of the Indian bow, it was too cumbrous to meet the attack of the mobile Macedonian cavalry. The slippery state of the surface prevented the archers from resting the end of their weapons firmly on the ground, and Alexander's horse were able to deliver their charge before the bowmen had completed their adjustments Q.

The Indian horsemen, each of whom carried two javelins and a buckler, were far inferior in per- sonal strength and military discipline to Alexander's men Arrian, Anab. With such force and such equipment Poros awaited the attack of the greatest military genius whom the world has seen.

Alexander clearly perceived that his small force would Alex- have no chance of success in a direct attack upon the enemy's tactics, centre, and resolved to rely on the effect of a vigorous cavalry charge against the Indian left wing.

The generals in command of the 6, infantry at his disposal were ordered to play a waiting game, and to take no part in the action until they should see the Indian foot and horse thrown into confusion by the charge of cavalry under Alexander's personal command. He opened the action by sending his mounted archers. First a thousand strong, against the left wing of the Indian army, bimfe.

They were quickly followed by the Guards led by Alexander himself. The Indian cavalry on the right wing hurried round by the rear to support their hard-pressed comrades on the left. But meantime two regiments of horse commanded by Koinos, which had been detached by Alexander for the purpose, swept past the front of the immobile host of Poros, galloped round its right wing, and threatened the rear of the Indian cavalry and chariots.

While the Indian squadrons were endeavouring to effect a partial change of front to meet the impending onset from the rear, they necessarily fell into a certain amount of con- fusion. Alexander, seeing his opportunity, seized the very moment when the enemy's horse were changing front, and pressed home his attack. The Indian ranks on both wings broke and ' fled for shelter to the elephants as to a friendly wall. Second The elephant drivers tried to retrieve the disaster by battle" urging their mounts against the Macedonian horse, but the phalanx, which had now advanced, began to take its de- ferred share in the conflict.

The Macedonian soldiers hurled showers of darts at the elephants and their riders. The maddened beasts charged and crushed through the closed ranks of the phalanx, impenetrable to merely human attack. The Indian horsemen seized the critical moment, and, seeking to revenge the defeat which they had suffered in the first stage of the action wheeled round and attacked Alexander's cavalry. But the Indians were not equal to the task which they attempted, and being repulsed, were again cooped up among the elephants.

The second act of the drama was now finished. Third The third and last began with a charge by the Macedonian stage of massed cavalry which crashed into the broken Indian ranks and effected an awful carnage. Who on earth let that happen? Grass up a misbehaving celebrity. The juicier the better. Massive Attack, Portishead, Roni Size-the underground scene here is healthy and eclectic.

Which, bizarrely, has always been a bit of a problem. Until now, that is. James Savage, the Bristol promoter behind the legendary One Love nights at the Lakota club, has been brought on board to mastermind the task of converting a club, which until six months ago was the local Ritzy's, into fbecrucia! Having secured the likes of Erick Moriilo, Angel Moraes and a certain Mr Daniel Rampling in the first few weeks, the spacious and extravagant interior of Creation has been heaving week in week out.

It's not just a case of throwing money at the big names, either. We hope people will come because they know they are going to hear good music- I'd rather have a club two-thirds full with people who are into what we are about, rather than a capacity club filled with violent beer monsters. They're bringing in all the big name DJs, but at the same time they've got a real passiqn about what they're doing. It's definitely the best thing to happen in Bristol for cjuite a while.

Twowordstoputfearintoany Englishman strolling around Glasgow after the Euro play-offs. Those patriotic Scots are rather miffed at being beaten by the southerners so all over the city dozens of policemen keep a watchful eye on the streets. But under The Arches, it's an entirely different ball game. Clubland legends Colours have taken over this cool but cavernous arena for the evening. The Scottish promoters and resident Jon Mancini have an uncanny knack of balancing mainstream thrills with underground beats and tonight's players reflect the club's increasingly international flavour.

Sod the football, the spangled faces seem to say. Where on earth are Kenny and Louis, though? In fact, MAW lost their records en route from America and have spent the night trawling round Glasgow's record emporiums. Not that you'd notice. This is an archetypal Ken 'n' Lou set, a sublime mixture of sweet soul and spiralling sax.

The room is rammed with garage-loving girls and equally entranced boys. Back on the main floor, Boy George is hitting the crowd with pounding liquid trance beats. Little wonder there's no talk of footie here. In Glasgow, Colours are the true champions. It's the only date in the year when the entire dance community gets fucked together, exchanges anecdotes and offers each other jobs and is also a chance for us to tell the entire world what is really happening on our dancefloors.

Zouk in Si ngapore has spent years booking underground DJs to provide its local and very loyal following with an alternative to the same old superstar DJs. Enter Pure Science, a producer who unwittingly rewrote the club rulebook with his hybrid of live performance and DJing.

After he was hailed Best New DJ inhis air miles have quadrupled and with it-the international interest in tech-house. Tonight is his Zouk debut, a date which suggests he's truly arrived. However, the recent success of tech- house leader Terry Francis at Zouk makes life much easier for the Scientist.

The club is packed with ex-pats and loose air stewards who all show their support for his visit, but it's the appreciative locals who make this Pacha-like venue so memorable.

Zouk is still Asia's focal point for dance and in recent years the partygoers have developed a discerning stance. Kuala Lumpur's burgeoning illegal party scene has also loosened them up immensely. Science's set is dark and intense, but lacking in the lush texturies which usually cushion his tribal beats. Regardless, his inventiveness carries him through. His set was more than enough to make him an early contender for the Best New DJ in Dance music in Asia has clearly come of age.

No boshing trance orf limsy noodle jazz here, just everything in between. And we mean everything. Stumble drunkenly the traditional Mook walk into the main room and you could find yourself face to face with anyone from Fabio, Roni Size and the Freestylers to Jerry Dammers, Paul Daley or one of the 'crraazzy ' residents of the Barry Ashworth variety.

Just weeks later Su Pollard was spotted trying to get off with Jarvis Cocker on the dancefloor. It's not all high jinks though. Scala proprietor and Mook promoter Sean McClusky who also set up classic London clubs Loveranch, Leisure Lounge and Complex is a man with a plan, spurning hype and shepherding his team into the 2 1 st Century with ease.

There's always a queue, always a riot, 1 sometimes a live band and nevera dull moment. Step inside The Arches, though, where long time techno governors Slam hold their immensely popular Pressure nights, and the deluge of machine gun techno strafing out of the speakers courtesy of Italian techno bod Marco Carola has taken everybody's mind off the excessive precipitation.

The party is already in full swing. In Pressure's back room, bespoke house label Glasgow Underground has chosen to showcase a debut live performance from the enigmatic deep house legend Romanthony, the top dog among the pedigree puppies that make up the label's impressive roster. Clad in regulation rock star leather and accompanied by his keyboard player and drummer, Romanthony kicks off the proceedings with his forthcoming single 'Bring U Up', instantly hitting a raw funk groove and uniting the assembled throng in vigorously shakin' their moneymakers.

So much so, that by the time 'The Wanderer' rolls around, some take the title a little too literally and drift away to the comforting familiarity of the main room's technoscape. No one can deny that Romanthony has bags of confidence and stage presence by the bucketload. But should we really be that surprised?

Yet the fact remains that when performing in a club more used to reverberating to the sound of Kraftwerk than appreciating the intricate fretwork, he could have done himself a big favour by throwing the crowd at least one bone.

Final result? Go on, admit it -as a nation of sloths addicted to beer, sofas and getting horizontal, the UK is the perfect breeding ground for lazy music lovers. And musically, we've never had it so good. While a generation of weary DJs and producers are hanging up their headphones, popping theirteeth in a mug next to the bed and reaching for the Werther's Originals, the new leftfield is busier than ever.

The godfather of ambient house, William Orbit, has put together an album of ambient classical covers. Britain has always been a secret lover of chill. As we cruise into the next millennium with the ozone layerdisappea ring and the world heating up, the people are most definitely chilling out.

Leading the charge, though, are Nottingham duo Bent. Meet the pipe and slippers of the new British leftfield. But if you heard the glorious odysseys of sound they'd made of these trance anthems you'd breathe a sig h of relief at thei r cheeky bl issed-out bootlegs.

Or, as Simon says, " I had a load of shite records and Nail had some recording gearso wethoughtwe'd havea bitofa laugh. Simon picks upthe nonsensical thread. With another 60 tracks gathering dust in their studio. Bent seem to have the world at their feet. How come when they sample such rubbish source material? So when a journalist recently wrote that listen i ng to Bent was "like gliding on ice with angelsfor stabilisers" what did the boys think?

Simon: "Well, I'd say it was more like being suspended on a pulley by razorbladesinyourgums. Actually, no, it's like ripping off someone's fingernails and doing paper cuts across their fingertips. That's probably because he's only done one EP and a handful of remixes that got snapped up by the chill out cognoscenti before you could whisper "pass the valium".

Currently tinkering on Richard Carpenter's yes, of TheCarpenters old Rhodes, Ewan admits to suffering from a "low boredom threshold" which means the track he's working on could be as Maas, could be a World Of Apples number or it might just get binned.

The Bola seven-inch 'Aguilla' on Skam. On the beach. What essential item would you need? Me swimming trunks and a good book. Fear not because the quietly spoken Welshman has been discreetly feeding the ambient underground with choice cuts for half a decade. Thankfully, the various drummers, guitarists and programmers are all dab hands with shimmering electronic exotica.

Pembrokeshire in west Wales, where the countryside meets the coast. What essential item do you need? The obvious. Enough said. Spaceksi drummer Morgan could go on to pin down the band's sound. Just don't ask them whattheO sound like. One of those hearing the trio's His Good Tree label What's your favourite chill odt record? Essential release: 'Eve' by Sdacek on Island Blue out? Umm, beds! There's a little bit of countryside i n my sweeping melodies and landscapes.

Let's hope he doesn't retire too soon. What's your favourite chill out record? It's totally ambient, just nice melodies on Rhodes and trumpet.

Under the hot sun somewhere. I'll have to say Greece, I suppose. Acoustic guitar, weed and a pair ofslippers. Now the police want to stamp them out. Hawtin and his crew are responsible for a succession of secret gatherings from which stories have leaked of strange goings on. Parties that have pushed the bou ndaries of sound into unchartered waters.

Parties that have irrevocably changed people's lives. The party which Hawtin has invited Muzik to attend -called Kompress-is extra special. Not only is it on Richie's home turf of Windsor, Ontario across theCanadian border from Detroit but it's going to be Hawtin himself all night long. Six hours of acid-fuelled, ultra-intense electronic mayhem.

One man, a couple of Technics, a anda Black plastikmagik. Renowned for being totally off the hook, they make Gatecrasher look like Antiques Roadshow.

It's a total reaction against the rave movement. The walls are pitch black, there's little lighting, there's one sound system and one DJ -a total nothingness. If you don't give people any extras to latch on to, they have no choice butto move further into the music. People trust us and they feel they can really let go.

A wooden DJ box has been specially constructed atthe back ofthe room. Above the dancefloor is a huge suspended ceiling which will be gradually lowered throughout the night- hence 'Kompress', All this fora one-off party. Hawtin's very particular about the sound, no surprise given the aural intricacies of his recorded output. Other DJs just tu rn up five minutes before the gig and pocketthe money. He cares that little bit more.

A Temporary Autonomous Zone. Justyou and the music. For six hours nothing else will matter. OHer excludes R. For a limited period only. Faced with such an ultimatum. Minus have no choice butto cancel Kompress.

Butthey still want a party, notleastfor the people who've travelled in from hundreds of miles away. The race is on to find a new venue. Two Windsor alternatives come to light. First, there's a disused club, Axis- a legendary spot where Flawtin first DJed alongside Detroit techno pioneers Derrick May, Juan Atkins and Kevin Saunderson - but it's unclear whether the owner can rustle up a licence. The second space is a long shot, a gay strip bar on the main Windsor thoroughfare. But the owner is reluctantto displace his regularclientele for Hawtin'stechno juggernaut.

All things considered, a tactical retreat to Minus HQ is in order. At 8,30 on Saturday morning Hawtin has one more throw of the dice.

There's a warehouse space over the border in Detroit. It's owned by thecity's pre-eminent sound system, Burst, who providethe sound at parties and gigs all over the mid West. It's a converted bomb shelter in a run down part of Downtown, perfect for a party. Hawtin and Burst strike a deal and the party is backon.

BackatbasecampinWindsor, Minus now have the job of advertising the newvenue. But then events take a bizarre twist. The rental van has been tailed by an unmarked police car all morning. A few minutes ago a policewoman demanded the return ofthe van, claiming the hire company reported it missing. Then Hawtin's parents reveal a squad car has passed their house three timesthis morning. Undercover cops? Fusing turntables and drum machines, it's a mix that unravels the coils of techno's DNA, a futuristictransmissionfromadancefloorthat's yetto exist.

It's what Kompress will be all about. Watching him is mesmerising, listening is braindance overload. He slaps down slabs of vinyl infurious succession and you're never entirely sure exactly what he's playing.

At times there are two records and the drum machine all going at once. At others it sounds like he's got about 1 0 records spinning, even when there's just a solitary beat pulsing from the speakers. And then there's the moment when the decks are empty yet you still hearthe beat pounding in your skull. He likes to fuck with your head like that. The police have been tipped off and are swarming all over the warehouse with fire officers and reps for the building's owners from whom Minus, Hawtin's record label, have leased the building forfive days.

The mood in the office has darkened. Everyone is convinced the office and mobile phones are tapped -tell-tale clicking noises are heard throughout conversations. If the phones are bugged, then the Detroit backup plan is common knowledge.

No one can quite believe the lengths the police are going to to close this party -any party- down. Fortunately Minus have "friends" in the Windsor police force. They confirm Minus' worst fears -the police are looking to make an example of Kompress. Paranoia hangs thickintheairand the blinds start to twitch.

This is X-Files territory. A little after 1pm, Hawtin does the sensible thing and calls the party off. With his record company and foreign work visas in the balance there's too much at stake here. He'll be back. But he's still angry. We run a successful record label, employ people, pay taxes and bring money into this city. And they're treating us like common criminals. It's just bad timing. If it hadn't been for that newspaper article, I'm sure they'd have left us alone.

Some hardcore Plastikman fans even drop by- in town for Kompress, they'd clocked Matthew's name and made the connection.

They're not too upset. The word around town also confirms people are rooting for Hawtin. Detroit's Metro club offers a free bar for him and his friends to drown their sorrows. The mobile's still red hot, one guy enquiring if the rumourthat Hawtin's behind bars is true.

Hecan't help butsmile. I didn't want to feel we were putting on a pa rty for the wrong reasons, justto wind up the police. After keeping a low profile in my home town for over 10 years, I've suddenly become the town criminal, bringing 'rave' and drugs intothequiettownofWindsor.

It's completely ridiculous. Minus have created a surreal television advert that'sto be broadcast locally just once, at midnight one day next week. It offers clues to what the pa rty will be about-riffing around notions oftime, space and perspective-but still leaves the viewer without any concrete details.

Ifthe party is really special, if people have invested great personal effort, they're going to remember it. A reaction against the fluffi ness of the nascent rave scene, these early parties were ultra-intense affairs. Spastik, Detroit, The first party where thecover-everything-in-black-plastic policy is introduced.

Dancing in a pitch black void, punters are completely and utterly consumed by the music. Consumed, Pontiac, Michigan, The most ambitious production to date, held in an old Masonic temple. Themed rooms and a microphone that secretly recorded your conversations at the entrance and played them back as you climbed thestairs. The North American underground With internet usage in North America light years ahead of Europe, it's the communications medium of choice for legal and illegal underground parties.

Chatrooms, discussion lists and web sites host all manner of dance-related tal k, f rom D J set I ists a nd drug info to more fanciful musings on the spirit of dancing. Specific party locations for 'undergrounds' are rarely mentioned. Voicemail lines may giveoutdetails of a meeting point but sometimes not even that- flyers just say a party is happening and it's upto you tofind out aboutit.

That policy helps keep outthe 'lite' ravers, puts the police off the scent and retains a sense of mystery around the event. As in the UK, police reaction to the underground varies from region to region but in general it's negative. It's unfortunate, especially sincea lot of the ideas ofthismusical genre are built on innovations made in this area Detroit and the mid Westl in the late Eighties and early Nineties. Websites for party-related information include www. From these sites you can access links to a host of localised scenesand check special internet broadcasts of events and music.

If you like, you can join in: they have the words printed on the back of theirT- shirts. Ask them why they do it and they will explain how Fontaine s techno-infused deep trance has converted them from the cult of his much-revered Cream predecessor.

To Cream faithful like these, it is as if Oakey never existed. Seb is the new God. And it seems the love affair is mutual "Yeah, I love 'em to bits, " insists Seb in his finest west London gravel.

People say it's a dodgy place, but I reckon it s the friendliest city in the world. The crowd at the club are fanatical, and extremely musically appreciative. This lot go as mad for a big trance record as they do for funky techno. The turning point was that Cream residency in Ibiza this summer.

Sure, you could put a donkey on the main floor of Cream and some punters would still sing its praises, butat Amnesia Seb went out of his way to construct quality sets that were light years from the Ibiza trance pap favoured by many of his contemporaries.

Seb pulled in both the punters and the media spotlight. Cream has been good for Seb, and Seb has been good for Cream. Let's say it fine-tuned me; it brought me to a lot of people's attention. Playing to the same people every week, you can't get away with just the same old records, the same old shit.

Cream, in particular, has taught me that. Far from it. Conceived in late Sixties Ibiza to a hippy Mum who worked as a part time DJ and an ex-soldier French Dad, Seb was into music as soon as he could shake his rattle. Not that he thanks his Mum for any musical genes, mind. So much so, in fact, that last year Cream promoter James Barton bought backstage passes to a Madness gig as Seb's Christmas present. But back to the Eighties. Music took precedence over homework chezFontaine, and although Seb got into sixth form college, it wasn't altogether a happy experience.

My Mum nearly had a heart attack when I got a shit job in a supermarket. Then I worked in a shoe shop, where my mate would nick all the best trainers outthe backdoor. That didn't last long, so I finally became a DJ. My old dear nearly collapsed! Subterania was an incredible experience, " explains Seb.

One night Norman was getting whistled and booed because the record was jumping. I would have panicked, but Norman took the needle off, removed some fluff theatrically under a spotlight, adjusted his hat a few times, and by the time the record was on again, the crowd was wild! What an inspiration!

It was the age of glam, and at Glitterati at The Cross, Fontaine became one of its chief proponents. In the land of champagne, models, handbag house, leather trousers and charlie culture, Seb was the playboy king. But that was just for starters. We probably had more fluffy bras and hot pants than Agent Provocateur! The club was full of gorgeous models, art students, pop stars and champagne, and let's just say a good time was had by all! I've got fuck all to show for it now, mind. One of the problems with the club was that people got insulted if they weren't on the guest list so we had three different lists, each with a different price.

Hardly anyone paid. It was fucking ridiculous! To ease the whiff of gorgonzola, he played increasingly in the north, then changed Stacey's name to Spacey, to reflect the harder element coming into his sets.

The club, though, died on its stilletoed feet. Seb hit the road in a big way, "I was heavily tarred with the cheesy, handbag brush, admits Seb, "so I tried togetas much experience playing as wide a variety of clubs as possible. This was the time when both me and Tall Paul, who promoters used to book together, seemed to spend our whole lives on the motorway.

I guess it was about six years ago. Wewere both a bit smashed, but we had a top conversation about tunes. We've been mates eiver since.

The crowd really loved it, though, and then other promoters got in on the act. The whole double actthing did get a bit out of hand, even though I suppose in a way it led to the radio show that we do together on Kiss. I guess we were seen as the new Brandon and Alex. He's a bloke who knows what he wants. The very first time we played together was at a Turnmills nigh t called Xanadu. He was mixing up funk with acid while taking the piss out of me because my Dad owned the venue!

Cheeky comments aside, I reckon his success is well deserved. I understand what it's like flying around motorways for years on thecircuit. The Cream residency is nothing less than he deserves.

She ended up getting into a fight with my girlfriend! Afteraslewof interesting London weekly residencies, how professionally useful could it have been to tear-arse around the country playing one-off gigs in places like the Crystal Rooms, Hereford? I've realised there are probably places that I can't play any more. I don't think I lost it, but travelling round the country really didn t do me any good. There were good gigs and bad, and I gained national recognition, but that was it.

Because you were never in the same club very often, the tendency was just tobangoutthebig tunes every set. That's a danger, because today's Euro trance is really just happy hardcore with a trance bassline. Someofthose riffs are appalling I "The moment of truth came when I was playing this trance anthem in a club once, and someone pointed out to me that nobody was dancing; everyone was just jumping around on the spot.

I took that on board. It's good for people to groove, to dance. Cream soon put in a phone call, and a fortnightly residency was secured. That turned into a weekly one, once Seb had got the courage up to accept it. I was scared. I can't go back to doing that once-a- month Mickey Mouse residency bullshit.

I think I'll have to play abroad a hell of a lot. With the birth of son Herbie last year, Seb has mellowed even more and become the family man par excellence. But I love coming back and seeing my little one play. No chance of that, mate. Those religious nutters bytheDJ booth would never approve. I love this track and it holds great memories of Ibiza '94 for me.

Ambient yet rocking. One of Boys Own's unsung heroes. The later stuff was both groundbreaking and surreal. First played this one on the Terrace at Space many years ago. He also Anglicises Sebastien to Sebastian. Seb settles for a parka and loafers instead, i vi S; Seb's sixth form report says simply: "Who is he?

I Vi Seb is booted out of school. But he has a unique masterplan: "Fuck A-levels, play records! The west London boy does good again with a residency at The Wag.

He's dropping ragga, rare groove and acid. It becomes a byword for glam and, er, cheese. LVV Malibu's goes glitter bikini, champagne, gorgonzola, guest list, celebrity sberbert mad. Which starts to get on Seb's tits, as the boy loves proper music. That doesn't stop him residing at the Ministry's Frisky, though, i Wv Seb hits the road. He's spinning harder and deeper than ever before. He takes it on a fortnightly, then weekly basis. Seb rocks Ibiza.

Muzik readers vote him a close second to Jules at the year's Ericsson MuzikAwards. Is trance dead? Is it going to drurnroll itself into oblivion? Is the year going to be a re-run of 1 and the split between I talian house, hardcore and - gulp - progressive house?

Muzik asks the inevitable question: is trance dead? This is just massive breakdowns, cheesy top lines and big riffs, which I distanced myself from ages ago - I'm still sore from the last lot of breakdowns!

Good music isn't going to change. It has been psychedelic Goa music at clubs named after goblins and dragons. It's been the hard tribal sound of Danny Tenaglia rocking New York gay clubs. The current Gatecrasher is tenuous to say the least. Everything goes in a circle anyway, and things have just come back to what meand Sasha, Danny Howells, Anthony Pappa have been playing.

Anyone who tells you it has, has been drunk when they've been DJing. And a lot of US house producers are making records at 1 30 bpms in direct response to the British influence, which was unheard of before. The other side is progressive house, basically. Do you go for deep and underground playing to people or populist and 20,strong crowds? Equally, some pop-trance records made as much sense while you were lost in the middle of a dancefloor as they did on the chart rundown on Sunday afternoon.

Records like ATB and 'Bullet In The Gun' existed only as club records in the time -anything from six months to two years - before they were re-released as pop records.

Then, inevitably, they became pop records. The result of trance's pop jackpot has been a split between the harder, faster breakdown junkiesand those who prefer the more relaxed gratification of a groove. That's why I've distanced myself from that sound. Records like 2 Unlimited and the Vengaboys have always existed. To be honest, the connection between Ann Lee and Danny Howells, warm-up DJ at Bedrock and progenitor of the freshly- pigeonholed sub-genre of tech-trance, has another take on it.

The situation is actually quite similar to Holland. They had a lot of good trance producers, then it went all gabba, and then gabba completely died. Eventually those fast beats have got to implode. Basically it's an artificial debate and your theory is based on a sensationalist belief.

Airscape's in there. So's Gouryella. It's still shifting mega-units. Records that can make the roof fly off when played by new tech-house DJs like Craig Richards or Lee Burridge, or old hands like Sasha and Digweed, can sound plain daft on Monday morning. They only make sense in context. Music is always changing and music that doesn't dies out, or becomes the staple of the easy, lifeless retro session. Trance is in the mood for change. But remember: that's change, not death.

Any debate on the future of trance wouldn't be complete without a word ortwo on Sheffield's trance Mecca, Gatecrasher. Before all that they were playing house music and I think they'll go back to that.

All the clubs that are so-called trance are as busy as ever. If you're good at something, and you're passionate about it, you should stick to your guns. At the touch of a button, play your favourite tracks in die ital quality.

The tech-house on offer 'The Big Babou', 'Dangerous Drive' drills a direct line to the fiercest part of the dancefloor with intricate percussion and basslines straight out of the Van Helden textbook. Crucially, though, Gamier doesn't let go of his roots. And when it comes to paying homage, few will beat the 'warm balm of 'Last Tribute To The 20th Century', the drifting ambience of 'Cycles Oppositions' or the unusual abstractions of 'Communications'.

Laurent Gamier has given techno the gentlest of kicks into the 21 st Century and reminded us all that Detroit's legacy can still lay the foundations of an entire album's worth of heart-stopping magic.

Political parties. Middle England mandates. People who like strangling themselves with oranges in their mouths while telling us they know what's best for us. It's a good reason to be suspicious of any album carrying a manifesto, because usually it's a smokescreen for an artist trying to justify the unlistenable, France's leading exponent of all things Gallic, housey, techno and eclectic waits until the fifth track in on this, his third album, to lay down his own manifesto.

And unlike every politician ever, Laurent Gamier actually delivers. This is techno as gloriously multi- faceted and genre-swallowing as anyone's offered in the last 1 0 years With his second album, '30', Gamier pushed the envelope and nearly got it returned to sender. He's learnt hislesson. Third time round, he's stuck to what he knows best. Redirected from DJ Tandu. German trance producer and DJ. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved London: Guinness World Records Limited.

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  1. Mooguzragore   Sazahn
    Career. Ingo Kunzi was born in in Baden-Württemberg, flameworkeranayathrisflameblade.xyzinfonced by the likes of Supertramp and Pat Metheny, he started out in the rock scene, building his own studio in and engineering demos for rock bands before discovering electronic music via the likes of Cosmic Baby and Talla 2XLC's Moskwa TV project. In , Kunzi launched his DJ Tandu alias with the "Acido" EP, his Genres: Trance.
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    This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation.
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  4. Minos   Akinogis
    Explore releases from DJ Tandu at Discogs. Shop for Vinyl, CDs and more from DJ Tandu at the Discogs Marketplace.
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