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We'll see more of vsync later on. Instead, allegro. Animation is making things appear to move. This could mean making a pixel move around the screen, but it is usually taken to mean repeatedly changing something's appearance so that it seems to propel itself.
For now we will just look at how to make simple things move around the screen; the second interpretation will be dealt with later on when we look at sprites. It's a philosophical matter whether it has in fact moved; since it doesn't exist anyway there's not a lot of point worrying about it. So we'll just say that it has moved. Now make the circle bigger radius 50, say and see what happens.
If it didn't, make the circle bigger. If it still doesn't, well, it would if you had used a high-resolution screen mode try it. If you can't make it flicker at all then congratulations, you have a supercomputer. Us mere mortals, though, have to do something about the flickering.
There are many approaches; some are more complicated than others, some are more effective, and some are simply good because they don't take much CPU time and so the game runs at a higher frame rate.
Synchronising to the vertical retrace : : Maximising drawn time : : Optimising drawing order : : Double buffering : : Dirty rectangles : : Alternate line blitting : : [ Next: Maximising drawn time Up: Reducing flicker ] 4. The vertical retrace is the time period during which your monitor is preparing to draw a new frame.
During this time nothing is drawn on the screen, so if we can erase the object and redraw it before the monitor starts the next frame our problem is solved. The vsync function waits until the start of the next vertical retrace period.
When this happens, we want to update the screen display as quickly as possible. So, replace the rest 10 with vsync and try it again, Allegro Vivace. Much better. Note that the vertical retrace is like a timer in a way; it occurs at a fixed rate for each video mode; it varies between modes. Consequently, since we have to sync with it anyway, it can be a useful way to regulate the game speed. We'll find better ways in chapter 9, though, when we deal with Allegro's timer system.
Consider what the situation would be if we had a lot of circles, and we erased all of them before redrawing them all. They would all be undrawn for a relatively long time; there's a high chance that the monitor will try to display their area of screen when they aren't drawn. We could solve this problem by erasing and redrawing them one by one. This would help reduce flicker, but it would introduce other problems.
The point, though, is that maximising the amount of time things are drawn for is a good aim. For example, if you erase all your objects and then work out where you should redraw them, they're off the screen while you're calculating. If you can do the calculations before erasing them, they'll spend more time on the screen and less time off it.
So what happens next? The monitor begins displaying the screen, from the top down. So, if we're only going to get some of the drawing done in time, it would be better to get the stuff at the top ready so that the monitor can draw it. In fact, the important thing is not to erase something while the monitor is trying to display it. We can't know for sure which part of the screen is being updated at any time though, unless we use a very high-resolution timer, which has other drawbacks.
Several drawing orders are sensible. You can draw things strictly from the top down. You could consider how complex each object is, and perhaps draw the simplest ones first. Another technique is to draw from the bottom up. This may sound odd, but if you do this you'll only run into the retrace once, and only for a short period. Using this system there will be some flicker, but it's likely to be less severe. Think about travelling quickly along a motorway in a car, looking sideways out of the window.
Better make sure somebody else is driving though. You're trying to get a good view of the hedge. Cars travelling in the same direction as you have a low relative velocity, and so they block your view of the hedge for long periods.
Cars travelling in the opposite direction will only block your view for very short periods, though. The technique of double buffering involves writing all the graphics to a temporary bitmap, until a whole frame has been updated, and then copying the final image to the real screen memory in one big chunk.
This can be effective for several reasons. Firstly, it means that we are no longer erasing anything from the screen -- we are just replacing one image with everything drawn with another still with everything drawn. Secondly, video memory is rather slow. If we tend to overwrite areas of the screen a lot when drawing the frame, it will be faster to do all these writes to the fast system memory and then copy that to the slow screen memory than it would be to perform the writes directly to the screen memory.
In addition, reading from screen memory is often even slower; so if we will want to read from the image it is far better to read from a copy in system memory. This is very much like disk caching, where copies of bits of the disk are kept in system memory to avoid having to access the disk directly. So, instead of drawing to the screen, we draw to another bitmap in memory. Then, when we're ready, we vsync and then copy the entire buffer onto the screen.
In the xx mode this fits well inside the retrace interval, so there should be no flicker at all. In higher resolutions or colour depths there is of course more image data to copy, so it takes longer.
The effects of this range from shearing where the top part of the screen shows one frame and the bottom part shows another to drops in frame rate where it takes so long that we miss the start of the next retrace period, so vsync waits for the one after that. We won't look too deeply at memory bitmaps and the blit function yet; they'll come up in more detail in chapter 7. Allegro Vivace theory is that you do exactly as you would when double-buffering, i.
This involves keeping track of which areas have changed; the simplest way is to mark rectangles as dirty when you write to them. Then you can easily blit all of these rectangles to the screen. This is better than double buffering if not much has changed, but if a lot has changed it can be worse, partly because a single blit of a large area is more efficient than a lot of blits of smaller areas, and partly because you may have two dirty rectangles which overlap; unless you take care to avoid this, that region of the image will be copied twice.
However, if you can detect situations where double buffering would be more efficient, you can simply blit the whole image in one chunk, as you would when double buffering. The two techniques have a lot in common. Dirty rectangles are more awkward to implement, and if you make small mistakes you can get strange results. We'll return to these in chapter 7 too. The idea here is to copy to the screen only every other line. You can copy just the even numbered lines, and leave the odd ones blank; then you get a slightly darker picture with effectively half the vertical resolution.
These techniques work best for things like video. Making several things happen at once More circles : : Squares too : : Keeping track of things : : Object Oriented Programming : : [ Next: Squares too Up: Making several things happen at once ] 5. Our goal here is to fit it into the game structure presented earlier. This time we're going to use a struct to hold together all the elements which describe each circle -- its location, its colour, its radius, and the speed with which it is moving in each direction.
It will also be convenient to remember what location it was drawn at, to simplify the erasing function. Then you can write the functions themselves, having decided roughly what they should do -- or you can write the calling routines, even if you haven't yet written the functions that they're calling. An advantage of this is that if you have more than one person working on the game, one of you could write the object's routines and the other could write the caller.
Another advantage, which we'll see later, is that it's easy to add new objects to this sort of system -- all the objects will use the same interface functions. So the person who's writing the coordinator, which calls all the objects' routines, could start by using dummy objects that don't do much, to check their routines work, then plug in the real objects later. Let's decide what functions each object should have. Ideally, we want to have the following routines for a circle: a function to draw it, a function to erase it, and a function to update its internal variables.
These will be called frequently, from the main game loop. In addition we require a function to create it, initialising its internal variables, along with a function to destroy it, which won't do much in this case but would, for example, deallocate any memory which may have been allocated for this circle. This is a useful thing to do, because these functions will be global, and we don't want clashes with functions for updating other types of object. Also, the prefix reminds us that they're in the circle module.
If we weren't sure of this, we could of course look in the header files to find out which module Allegro Vivace were from, but it's faster if you know just by looking at the functions' names. Having initialised them, we'll draw them all, before we return from the init function.
The use of the keyboard will be explained in the next section. In processwe will calculate the new positions of all the circles. I suggest now that you try to implement this yourself, for a single circle, then expand the program to move more of them.
If you have trouble making your own program to move just one circle, I suggest you look at the first example, and try to modify that to move more than one. Note though that when moving more than one circle, if you erase and draw them one by one, the erasing of the later circles can rub out parts of the earlier ones, which have already been drawn. To solve this, erase all the circles at once, and then redraw them all.
However, this could increase the amount of flicker seen remember maximising the drawn time? In a real game, though, there are usually many different types of object. So let's look at some ways of dealing with squares as well as circles, for example. One solution is to add more information to the struct, enabling it to describe a circle or a square, with a field to say which.
Then we could modify the functions to differentiate between the two and draw them differently. Some functions might not need changing at all. Another solution is to create a new struct for the squares, and a new set of functions to deal with them. These two techniques both have their advantages. The first one works well when the two types are very similar; in these cases many functions wouldn't need changing.
All the objects could be stored in one array, and only one loop would be needed to draw them, move them, etc. In addition, the similarities can be exploited so that we can make generic routines for things like collision detection. The second technique works well when the objects are quite different. In this case it gets awkward to make a struct that can hold the data for any of the several objects, and the functions no longer share much code.
In practise, a set of many different object types can be partitioned into classes of object type. For example, the criterion could be behaviour, appeareance, or which player owns the object. Each class can then be treated using the first mentioned system, with a general struct for each class capable of describing any object in that class, and these separate classes are treated like separate objects in the second system.
If you have understood this, try to adapt the multiple circle program above to deal also with squares, using each of the first two methods. If you do not manage it on your own, look at these and try to add another object type to each. As an exercise based on the mixed technique, try making a program to move circles, squares and In all the examples above we have had a set number of each shape moving around. We could make it animate less shapes by reducing the loop count, but we'd always be destroying the last shape in the list, and we could never add extra shapes unless we'd destroyed some first.
In short, what the game could do was limited at compile-time by the sizes of the arrays. There are two techniques I want to introduce here: dynamic allocation and linked lists. Linked lists depend on dynamic allocation, so you should probably read that section first. Dynamic allocation allows us to ask for memory at run-time i. This means, for example, that we could ask the user at the start of the program how many of each shape to animate, and then create the arrays however large they need to be.
Better still, we can resize the arrays while the game is running, so if we ever run out of room we can just make the arrays a bit bigger.
To do this we use the function malloc. Its use is largely a matter of taste. If the allocation failed e. Under some circumstances you might like to detect this and inform the user.
It's good practice to do this, but often people don't bother because there may be no useful way to recover. If you're using djgpp with a robust DPMI host e. After the allocation, we can refer to the circles as circles, circles, etc, as if we'd made a real array. What we have is not an array in the strict C sense; it's just a pointer to a block of memory.
In many ways this behaves much like an array, though. Finally, when we've finished with the memory we should free it so that malloc can reuse it later if necessary: free circles ; Now try modifying your program from section 5. Now, what about letting the game expand the array as it runs? It was dynamically allocated, so we can use the realloc function to reallocate it with a different size.
The data that was in it before will still be there when we expand the allocation. If we're shrinking it, the data that's still in the new block stays there of course but the data that is cut off the end of the block is lost. Even if you reexpand the block, you shouldn't rely on regaining the data. The problem with reallocating the block like this often is that if the memory area just after our block is already taken then realloc needs to copy the whole block to somewhere else.
This isn't particularly slow memory copy operations are pretty fast actually but it's not the sort of thing you want to happen too often. Most implementations of malloc put some empty space at the end of each block, but we shouldn't rely too heavily on this.
It's better to reduce the number of reallocations some other way. The simplest way to do this is to always request plenty of extra space - then we don't need to call realloc so often.
After calling realloc, you shouldn't use the pointer's old value any more -- if realloc has moved the block, the old value is now invalid. If you'd assigned another pointer the value of objects and realloc had to move the block somewhere else, the other pointer would be pointing at a bad block. Unfortunately, for some reason many people find them hard to understand.
If you can get a good visualisation of them in your mind, though, they're really very simple, and when you've used them a few times you get an intuitive feel for how to maintain them. Singly linked lists : : Doubly linked lists : : Circularly linked lists : : Using linked lists : : [ Next: Doubly linked lists Up: Linked lists ] 5. Pointers are just objects that can point to other objects. Try not to think of them exactly as memory addresses; this is a common analogy, but it isn't necessarily correct, and pointer arithmetic becomes confusing if you think of them in this way.
So pointers can point at other data objects. Most pointers are designed to point at a certain type of data. To mark the end of the list we can set the last node's next pointer to NULL. The first record, with number 7, has its next pointer pointing at the second, with number 3.
That record's next pointer points at record 3, which has numberand record 3's next pointer is NULL because it's the last record in the list. The whole list is storing the numbers 7, 3, andin that order. You're probably wondering why we bother with this system. It has several advantages and several disadvantages when compared to the linear dynamic block storage mentioned above. Firstly, it's very easy to manipulate things in the linked list. New records can be added anywhere in the list, old records can be removed, existing records can be reordered, or moved from list to list, and lists can be split or joined with little hassle; you just need to change the values of some of the next pointers.
Any of these operations would be awkward and time consuming to perform on a linear block -- we might have to move large amounts of data.
For example, imagine removing the second data item in a large sequential list -- we'd have to move the rest of the list forward one place. In a linked list, we just have to set the first item's next pointer to whatever the second item's next pointer is set to i. Similarly, adding a new item to the list is simple.
Assuming we have a pointer to the item in the list before the place where we want to put our item, we just set our item's next pointer to that item's next pointer, and then set that item's next pointer to point at the new item. The disadvantages of linked list are memory usage and inefficiency in finding an item by number.
The memory usage is greater because of all the pointers in the list, and because it's generally a large number of small chunks in particular, as of writing this, djgpp's malloc function has a minimum block size of bytes. Finding an item by number is inefficient because we need to step through the whole list from the beginning to get to it, whereas in a sequential list we can jump straight to it with a single addition.
As always, which system you'll want to use will depend upon what you're using it for. It often simplifies code if the first item in a linked list is a dummy item sometimes referred to as the list headwhose data has no meaning. The reason for this is that it makes storing empty lists simpler -- they become lists with only one item, the dummy.
I think you'll probably see now why linked lists can be so useful -- we can create as many shapes as we like, whenever we like, and just add them to the list in an efficient way. We don't really care what their number is in the list; if we need to refer to a specific Allegro Vivace in the list for some reason we can use a pointer to that item, rather than its ordinal number.
In the singly linked list above, each node had one pointer to the next node in the list. In a doubly linked list, each node has two pointers -- one to the next item in the list, and one to the previous item in the list. It can act as a handle to the list -- something to hold on to, that will always be part of the list.
The other nodes will be added and removed at times, remember; the head element is the only one that's guarranteed to be there all the time. One advantage of using a doubly linked list is that you can remove a node from a list without needing to know which list it is in.
Another advantage is that if an entity in the list needs to scan the list it can do so without needing to be given a pointer to the head of the list. Also, given any item in the list you can add an item on either side without needing to scan the list. Doubly linked lists are generally easier and more efficient to maintain, but they do of course have a little more overhead. In our singly linked list we had the next pointer of the last node set to NULL, marking the end of the list.
In a circularly linked list, the last node's next pointer points back to the start of the list -- so there isn't really a last node. Think of it as a ring of nodes, each pointing to the next. If the circular list is doubly linked, the first node's prev pointer points to the last node. Empty circular lists are also a problem; using a dummy node is useful here too, but you must remember to skip over it when you're stepping around the loop. Alternatively you can make your pointer to the list NULL when it's completely empty as you can with any of these linked listsbut you still have to make special cases.
Circular lists are useful for different things to linear linked lists; in game programming you generally want to do something to everything in the list once per game cycle, and for this purpose a linear linked list is often better. I mentioned circular lists here for completeness, and because they're not very different to linear lists.
You could also make it add a new shape every game cycles, or make it delete one. This method of putting all game entities into a linked list and animating them is very useful. User input An input device is anything you use to give information to the computer. The standard PC only has a keyboard, although most have mice and many have joysticks. In a way I suppose a disk drive is also a sort of input device, as are microphones, scanners, and modems, but they're not generally good things to use to control a game.
We'll look at each of the main three in detail, then consider abstracting our input system. Finally we'll look at different ways to use the input information. There are several reasons for this; firstly, whether you hold a key down or just tap it the game would only see one keypress for a certain period usually a quarter of a second.
Then if you held the key down it would fill the buffer with many keypresses, which means the game might still be reading them after you let go of the key. Also, if you hold one key down and tap another, the first key will seem to have been released. These combine to make the standard PC keyboard routines useless for controlling action games. Thankfully Allegro provides a set of much better routines.
Then you can use Allegro's keyboard routines. Most importantly, there is an array of chars called key which has one element for each key on the keyboard. This includes conio's getchstdio's getchargetsscanf and anything else using stdin. See the Allegro documentation for more information. For now we will make the objects move at a constant speed in the direction the user indicates. We'll discuss other models later on. Try modifying the moving single circle program to allow the user to move it around.
Try to fit your program into the suggested structure, too. Generally the best use of the key array is when you don't care what the key normally means. Q for Quit. Since the PC keyboard wasn't really designed as a game control device, it cannot track all the keys independently. It doesn't even come close. There are certain key combinations which, when pressed, mask out other keys -- even when you have good keyboard routines like Allegro's. It's a hardware limitation. Even more unfortunately, not all keyboards clash in the same places.
So how are you supposed to choose keys for your game if they might not work on all systems? The answer is, of course, to allow the users to define their own keys. Then if there is a keyclash they can choose some other keys. Naturally you shouldn't expect the user to know what all the scancodes are; you should write a routine to check this for them. It's safe to assume the first pressed key you find is the only one; what stupid luser would press two keys together when asked for a single key?
Make sure the user has the joystick centred i. Try modifying the previous example to read the joystick instead of the keyboard. If you never call that function, they'll always stay the same; you don't need to call it too often, though. Once per game cycle should be plenty, except when you're checking the following In most games where this is a problem, setting a maximum fire rate will get around this anyway i. One thing bouncing can really mess up is double-clicks on the joystick button; single presses may look like two or more presses.
Note though that this is only an issue if the time between joystick polls is very short. Try modifying the digital joystick example to make the circle change colour when the fire button is pressed.
Try to make it only change once on each press by waiting for the button to release each time -- remember to poll the joystick inside your waiting loop, otherwise the variables won't get updated. If the colours don't change in the right order, the button may be bouncing; try to debounce it. Now harder make it still let you move the circle around while you're holding down fire. It'll still work, but needs updating for Allegro 4. However, as Shawn points out in allegro.
If you want to get meaningful input you have to calibrate the joystick before using it, which is a royal pain in the arse. Calibration isn't really that hard, but it is a little irritating to the user. Most PC gamers are pretty used to calibrating their joysticks by now, though. The point about calibration is that the joystick routines need to find out what range of values the joystick gives, in both the X and Y axes.
If one is, and you later want to calibrate it, follow this sequence:. Now Allegro has everything it needs to know to be able to give you analogue positions. For aesthetic reasons it's a good idea to now have the joystick returned to its centre position; otherwise you might dive Allegro Vivace something important with them still holding it in the bottom right hand corner. Either ask them to centre it and acknowledge once again, or keep reading it until they do see below.
Having calibrated the joystick we can at last read its position in more detail. Have a go at modifying the circle-moving program to move the circle at a speed relative to how far the stick is moved. Note the define near the start; it controls the maximum speed for the circle, which corresponds to full deflection of the joystick. Using a define or a constant variable rather than just a number makes it simpler to change the speed in the future. When a button is pressed you do something, depending on what the mouse is pointing at.
It is a very popular technique. Initialising the mouse : : Reading the mouse : : Displaying the mouse pointer : : Controlling the mouse pointer : : [ Next: Reading the mouse Up: Point and click ] 6. I went to a concert and the movment went: Adagio, vivace, adagio, vivace, Giga: Allegro.
I understand what Adagio means. But I am having a hard time finding the difference between the Vivace and Allegro. I searched for definitions and found that Allegro means cheerful or brisk; but commonly interpreted as lively, fast.
I dont really understand the difference could someone please explain it to me in normal terms where I would see the difference. Thanks so much. That is to say, allegro can be measured in terms of BPM beats per minute - there is no accepted definition, but let's say it's - BPM.
But vivace simply indicates the mood of the piece. In tempo terms, it is unlikely that a piece marked vivace will be played at less than bpm, so you might say in rough terms that's it's "mid to high allegro territory".
I have seen metronome markings for allegro anywhere form to Vivace mm markings overlap those of allegro, so tempo is not the only issue. Vivace is pretty much one of the if not the fastest tempo markings.
Many first movements of sonatas and symphonies are marked "allegro". If the composer wants a little more drive, he will mark "allegro con brio" or "allegro vivace" e. Even faster than "vivace" is "presto", "presto con fuoco" with fire or "prestissimo". I think there is a difference in that Rock is a sub genre of Rock and Roll.
You have so many subs that run off from Rock music New Wave Rock, and alternative rock. I am not sure that the Roll actually made a difference but I think it was a more confined genre, Rock has a lot of branches that come off of that trunk, known as Rock and Roll. Trending News. New U. COVID cases rise by nearly 50, in a day. When 'Karens' attack: Analyzing the meltdowns.
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