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Globally, metal recycling is generally low. Inthe International Resource Panelhosted by the United Nations Environment Programme published reports on metal stocks that exist within society  and their recycling rates.
They warned that the recycling rates of some rare metals used in applications such as mobile phones, battery packs for hybrid cars and fuel cells are so low that unless future end-of-life recycling rates are dramatically stepped up these critical metals will become unavailable for use in modern technology. Some metals are either essential nutrients typically iron, cobaltand zincor relatively harmless such as rutheniumsilver, and indiumbut can be toxic in larger amounts or certain forms.
Other metals, such as cadmiummercury, and lead, are highly poisonous. Potential sources of metal poisoning include miningtailingsindustrial wastesagricultural runoffoccupational exposurepaints and treated timber. Copper, which occurs in native form, may have been the first metal discovered given its distinctive appearance, heaviness, and malleability compared to other stones or pebbles.
Gold, silver, and iron as meteoric ironand lead were likewise discovered in prehistory. Forms of brassan alloy of copper and zinc made by concurrently smelting the ores of these metals, originate from this period although pure zinc was not isolated until the 13th century.
The malleability of the solid metals led to the first attempts to craft metal ornaments, tools, and weapons. Meteoric iron containing nickel was discovered from time to time and, in some respects this was superior to any industrial steel manufactured up to the s when alloy steels become prominent. The discovery of bronze an alloy of copper with arsenic or tin enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than previously possible.
Bronze tools, weapons, armor, and building materials such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone and copper " Chalcolithic " predecessors. Initially, bronze was made of copper and arsenic forming arsenic bronze by smelting naturally or artificially mixed ores of copper and arsenic. From about BCE sword-makers of Toledo, Spain were making early forms of alloy steel by adding a mineral called wolframitewhich contained tungsten and manganese, to iron ore and carbon.
It soon became the basis for the weaponry of Roman legions; their swords were said to have been "so keen that there is no helmet which cannot be cut through by them. In pre-Columbian Americaobjects made of tumbagaan alloy of copper and gold, started being produced in Panama and Costa Rica between — CE. Small metal sculptures were common and an extensive range of tumbaga and gold ornaments comprised the usual regalia of persons of high status. At around the same time indigenous Ecuadorians were combining gold with a naturally-occurring platinum alloy containing small amounts of palladium, rhodium, and iridium, to produce miniatures and masks composed of a white gold-platinum alloy.
The metal workers involved heated gold with grains of the platinum alloy until the gold melted at which point the platinum group metals became bound within the gold. After cooling, the resulting conglomeration was hammered and reheated repeatedly until it became as homogenous as if all of the metals concerned had been melted together attaining the melting points of the platinum group metals concerned was beyond the technology of the day. Arabic and medieval alchemists believed that all metals and matter were composed of The Metal principle of sulfur, the father of all metals and carrying the combustible property, and the principle of mercury, the mother of all metals [n 10] and carrier of the liquidity, fusibility, and volatility properties.
These principles were not necessarily the common substances sulfur and mercury found in most laboratories. This theory reinforced the belief that all metals were destined to become gold in the bowels of the earth through the proper combinations of heat, digestion, time, and elimination of contaminants, all of which could be developed and hastened through the knowledge and methods of alchemy. Arsenic, zinc, antimony, and bismuth became known, although these were at first called semimetals or bastard metals on account of their immalleability.
All four may have been used incidentally in earlier times without recognising their nature. Albertus Magnus is believed to have been the first to isolate arsenic from a compound inby heating soap together with arsenic trisulfide. Metallic zinc, which is brittle if impure, was isolated in India by AD. The first description of a procedure for isolating antimony is in the book De la pirotechnia by Vannoccio Biringuccio. Bismuth was described by Agricola in De Natura Fossilium c.
The first systematic text on the arts of mining and metallurgy was De la Pirotechnia by Vannoccio Biringucciowhich treats the examination, fusion, and working of metals. Sixteen years later, Georgius Agricola published De Re Metallica ina clear and complete account of the profession of mining, metallurgy, and the accessory arts and sciences, as well as qualifying as the greatest treatise on the chemical industry through the sixteenth century.
He gave the following description of a metal in his De Natura Fossilium :. Metal is a mineral body, by nature either liquid or somewhat hard. The latter may be melted by the heat of the fire, but when it has cooled down again and lost all heat, it becomes hard again and resumes its proper form.
In this respect it differs from the stone which melts in the fire, for although the latter regain its hardness, yet it loses its pristine form and properties. Traditionally there are six different kinds of metals, namely gold, silver, copper, iron, tin and lead. There are really others, for quicksilver is a metal, although the Alchemists disagree with us on this subject, and bismuth is also. The ancient Greek writers seem to have been ignorant of bismuth, wherefore Ammonius rightly states that there are many species of metals, animals, and plants which are unknown to us.
Stibium when smelted in the crucible and refined has as much right to be regarded as a proper metal as is accorded to lead by writers. If when smelted, a certain portion be added to tin, a bookseller's alloy is produced from which the type is made that is used by those who print books on paper.
Each metal has its own form which it preserves when separated from those metals which were mixed with it. Therefore neither electrum nor Stannum [not meaning our tin] is of itself a real metal, but rather an alloy of two metals. Electrum is an alloy of gold and silver, Stannum of lead and silver. And yet if silver be parted from the electrum, then gold remains and not electrum; if silver be taken away from Stannum, then lead remains and not Stannum. Whether brass, however, is found as a native metal or not, cannot be ascertained with any surety.
We only know of the artificial brass, which consists of copper tinted with the colour of the mineral calamine. And yet if any should be dug up, it would be a proper metal.
Black and white copper seem to be different from the red kind. Metal, therefore, is by nature either solid, as The Metal have stated, or fluid, as in the unique case of quicksilver. But enough now concerning the simple kinds. Platinum, the third precious metal after gold and silver, was discovered in Ecuador during the period toby the Spanish astronomer Antonio de Ulloa and his colleague the mathematician Jorge Juan y Santacilia.
Ulloa was the first person to write a scientific description of the metal, in Inthe German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth was able to isolate an oxide of uranium, which he thought was the metal itself. Klaproth was subsequently credited as the discoverer of uranium.
Henri Becquerel subsequently discovered radioactivity in by using uranium. In the s, Joseph Priestley and the Dutch chemist Martinus van Marum observed the transformative action of metal surfaces on the dehydrogenation of alcohol, a development which subsequently led, into the industrial scale synthesis of sulphuric acid using a platinum catalyst. The lanthanide metals were largely regarded as oddities until the s when methods were developed to more efficiently separate them from one another.
They have subsequently found uses in cell phones, magnets, lasers, lighting, batteries, catalytic converters, and in other applications enabling modern technologies. Other metals discovered and prepared during this time were cobalt, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, tungsten, and chromium; and some of the platinum group metals, palladium, osmium, iridium, and rhodium.
All metals discovered until had relatively high densities; their heaviness was regarded as a singularly distinguishing criterion. From onwards, light metals such as sodium, potassium, and strontium were isolated.
Their low densities challenged conventional wisdom as to the nature of metals. They behaved chemically as metals however, and were subsequently recognised as such. Aluminium was discovered in but it was not until that an industrial large-scale production method was developed. Prices of aluminium dropped and aluminium became widely used in jewelry, everyday items, eyeglass frames, optical instruments, tableware, and foil in the s and early 20th century.
Aluminium's ability to form hard yet light alloys with other metals provided the metal many uses at the time. During World War I, major governments demanded large shipments of aluminium for light strong airframes. The most common metal in use for electric power transmission today is aluminium conductor steel reinforced.
Also seeing much use is all-aluminum-alloy conductor. Aluminium is used because it has about half the weight of a comparable resistance copper cable though larger diameter due to lower specific conductivityas well as being cheaper. Copper was more popular in the past and is still in use, especially at lower voltages and for grounding. While pure metallic titanium In the s and s, the Soviet Union pioneered the use of titanium in military and submarine applications as part of programs related to the Cold War.
Starting in the early s, titanium came into use extensively in military aviation, particularly in high-performance jets, starting with aircraft such as the F Super Sabre and Lockheed A and SR Metallic scandium was produced for the first time in Production of aluminium-scandium alloys began in following a U. Aluminium-scandium alloys were also developed in the USSR. The modern era in steelmaking began with the introduction of Henry Bessemer 's Bessemer process inthe raw material for which was pig iron.
His method let him produce steel in large quantities cheaply, thus mild steel came to be used for most purposes for which wrought iron was formerly used. The Gilchrist-Thomas process or basic Bessemer process was an improvement to the Bessemer process, made by lining the converter with a basic material to remove phosphorus.
Due to its high tensile strength and low cost, steel came to be a major component used in buildingsinfrastructuretoolsshipsautomobilesmachinesappliances, and weapons.
Inthe Englishmen Clark and Woods patented an alloy that would today be considered a stainless steel. Metallurgists of the 19th century were unable to produce the combination of low carbon and high chromium found in most modern stainless steels, and the high-chromium alloys they could produce were too brittle to be practical. It was not until that the industrialisation of stainless steel alloys occurred in England, Germany, and the United States.
By three metals with atomic numbers less than lead 82the heaviest stable metal, remained to be discovered: elements 71, 72, Von Welsbach, inThe Metal, proved that the old ytterbium also contained a new element 71which he named cassiopeium.
Urbain proved this simultaneously, but his samples were very impure and only contained trace quantities of the new element. Despite this, his chosen name lutetium was adopted. InOgawa found element 75 in thorianite but assigned it as element 43 instead of 75 and named it nipponium. Georges Urbain claimed to have found element 72 in rare-earth residues, while Vladimir Vernadsky independently found it in orthite. Neither claim was confirmed due to World War I, and neither could be confirmed later, as the chemistry they reported does not match that now known for hafnium.
After the war, inCoster and Hevesy found it by X-ray spectroscopic analysis in Norwegian zircon. Hafnium was thus the last stable element to be discovered. By the end of World War II scientists had synthesized four post-uranium elements, all of which are radioactive unstable metals: neptunium inplutonium —41and curium and americiumrepresenting elements 93 to The first two of these were eventually found in nature as well.
Curium and americium were by-products of the Manhattan project, which produced the world's first atomic bomb in The bomb was based on the nuclear fission of uranium, a metal first thought to have been discovered nearly years earlier. They retain most of their strength under these conditions, for prolonged periods, and combine good low-temperature ductility with resistance to corrosion or oxidation.
Superalloys can now be found in a wide range of applications including land, maritime, and aerospace turbines, and chemical and petroleum plants. The successful development of the atomic bomb at the end of World War II sparked further efforts to synthesize new elements, nearly all of which are, or are expected to be, metals, and all of which are radioactive. It was not until that element 97 berkeliumnext after element 96 curiumwas synthesized by firing alpha particles at an americium target.
Inelement fermium was found in the debris of the first hydrogen bomb explosion; hydrogen, a nonmetal, had been identified as an element nearly years earlier. Sinceelements mendelevium to tennessine have been synthesized. The most recently synthesized element is oganesson. Its status as a metal or a nonmetal—or something else—is not yet clear. A metallic glass also known The Metal an amorphous or glassy metal is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with disordered atomic-scale structure.
Most pure and alloyed metals, in their solid state, have atoms arranged in a highly ordered crystalline structure. Amorphous metals have a non-crystalline glass-like structure. But unlike common glasses, such as window glass, which are typically electrical insulators, amorphous metals have good electrical conductivity.
Amorphous metals are produced in several ways, including extremely rapid cooling, physical vapor deposition, solid-state reaction, ion irradiation, and mechanical alloying. The first reported metallic glass was an alloy Au 75 Si 25 produced at Caltech in More recently, batches of amorphous steel with three times the strength of conventional steel alloys have been produced.
Currently the most important applications rely on the special magnetic properties of some ferromagnetic metallic glasses. The low magnetization loss is used in high efficiency transformers. Theft control ID tags and other article surveillance schemes often use metallic glasses because of these magnetic properties.
A shape-memory alloy SMA is an alloy that "remembers" its original shape and when deformed returns to its pre-deformed shape when heated. While the shape memory effect had been first observed inin an Au-Cd alloy, it was not untilwith the accidental discovery of the effect in a Ni-Ti alloy that research began in earnest, and another ten years before commercial applications emerged. SMA's have applications in robotics and automotive, aerospace and biomedical industries. These materials are of particular interest as the magnetic response tends to be faster and more efficient than temperature-induced responses.
InIsraeli chemist Dan Shechtman found an aluminium-manganese alloy having five-fold symmetry, in breach of crystallographic convention at the time which said that crystalline structures could only have two- three- four- or six-fold symmetry. Since this time, hundreds of quasicrystals have been reported and confirmed.
They exist in many metallic alloys and some polymers. Quasicrystals effectively have infinitely large unit cells. Icosahedrite Al 63 Cu 24 Fe 13the first quasicrystal found in nature, was discovered in Most quasicrystals have ceramic-like properties including low electrical conductivity approaching values seen in insulators and low thermal conductivity, high hardness, brittleness, and resistance to corrosion, and non-stick properties.
New applications may take advantage of the low coefficient of friction and the hardness of some quasicrystalline materials, for example embedding particles in plastic to make strong, hard-wearing, low-friction plastic gears. Other potential applications include selective solar absorbers for power conversion, broad-wavelength reflectors, and bone repair and prostheses applications where biocompatibility, low friction and corrosion resistance are required.
Complex metallic alloys CMAs are intermetallic compounds characterized by large unit cells comprising some tens up to thousands of atoms; the presence of well-defined clusters of atoms frequently with icosahedral symmetry ; and partial disorder within their crystalline lattices.
They are composed of two or more metallic elements, sometimes with metalloids or chalcogenides added. They include, for example, NaCd2, with sodium atoms and cadmium atoms in the unit cell. Linus Pauling attempted to describe the structure of NaCd 2 inbut did not succeed until At first called "giant unit cell crystals", interest in CMAs, as they came to be called, did not pick up untilwith the publication of a paper called "Structurally Complex Alloy Phases", given at the 8th International Conference on Quasicrystals.
Potential applications of CMAs include as heat insulation; solar heating; magnetic refrigerators; using waste heat to generate electricity; and coatings for turbine blades in military engines. Compared to conventional alloys with only one or two base metals, HEAs have considerably better strength-to-weight ratios, higher tensile strength, and greater resistance to fracturing, corrosion, and oxidation.
Although HEAs were described as early assignificant interest did not develop until the s; they continue to be the focus of research in materials science and engineering because of their potential for desirable properties. Such alloys have some of the best properties of metals and ceramics.
These properties include high electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, damage tolerance, machinability, high elastic stiffness, and low thermal expansion coefficients. During mechanical testing, it has been found that polycrystalline Ti 3 SiC 2 cylinders can be repeatedly compressed at room temperature, up to stresses of 1 GPa, and fully recover upon the removal of the load. Some MAX phases are also highly resistant to chemical attack e.
Potential applications for MAX phase alloys include: as tough, machinable, thermal shock-resistant refractories; high-temperature heating elements; coatings for electrical contacts; and neutron irradiation resistant parts for nuclear applications. While MAX phase alloys were discovered in the s, the first paper on the subject was not published until From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Type of material. Not to be confused with MedalMeddleor Mettle. This article is about metallic materials. For other uses, see Metal disambiguation. Body-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 2-atom unit cell, as found in e. Face-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 4-atom unit cell, as found in e.
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure, with a 6-atom unit cell, as found in e. Metals—metalloids—nonmetals in the periodic table. Main article: Alloy. See also: Names for sets of chemical elements. Main articles: Ferrous metallurgy and Non-ferrous metals.
Main article: Refractory metal. Main articles: Heavy metals and Light metals. Main articles: Base metalnoble metaland precious metal. See also: Nucleosynthesis. Metals in the Earth's crust: v t e. Most abundant up to 82 ppm. Abundant — ppm. Uncommon 1—99 ppm. Rare 0. Very rare 0. See also: Abundance of the chemical elements. Main articles: OreMiningand Extractive metallurgy.
See also: Mineral nutrient and Metal toxicity. Native copper. Mercury being poured into a petri dish. Electrum, a natural alloy of silver and gold, was often used for making coins. Pewter was first used around the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Near East. A pectoral ornamental breastplate made of tumbagaan alloy of gold and copper. Gold is for the mistress—silver for the maid— Copper for the craftsman cunning at his trade. Potassium pearls under paraffin oil. Size of the largest pearl is 0.
Aluminium chunk, 2. Colored gold Ductility Ferrous metallurgy Metal theft Metallurgy Metalworking Properties of metals, metalloids and nonmetals Structural steel Transition metal. Unbeknownst to them, their iron contained a high amount of manganese, enabling the production of a superior form of steel.
These blades had legendary cutting abilities. The iron the smiths were using was sourced from India, and contained one or more carbide-forming elements, such as V, Mo, Cr, Mn, and Nb.
Modern analysis of these weapons has shown that these elements supported the catalytic formation of carbon nanotubes, which in turn promoted the formation of cementite Fe 3 C nanowires. The malleability of the carbon nanotubes offset the brittle nature of the cementite, and endowed the resulting steel with a unique combination of strength and flexibility. Knowledge of how to make what came to called Damascus steel died out in the eighteenth century possibly due to exhausting ore sources with the right combination of impurities.
The techniques involved were not rediscovered until These theories retained the four classical elements as underlying the composition of sulfur, mercury and salt. Physics of Metal-Nonmetal Transitions. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Sir Nevill Mott wrote a letter to a fellow physicist, Prof. Peter P. Edwardsin which he notes Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved September 7, World Coinage News.
Chemistry: A Conceptual Approach 3rd ed. New York: D. Van Nostrad Company. M; Lee, K. Structure—Property Relations in Nonferrous Metals. Structure-Property Relations in Nonferrous Metals. Bibcode : srnm. Editions Quae. Chemical Oxidation Applications for Industrial Wastewaters. IWA Publishing.
Earth's Natural Resources. Retrieved A History of Metallurgy, Second Edition. London: Maney Publishing, for the Institute of Materials. Mix about 25ml a teaspoon is 5ml of oxalic acid with ml of warm water.
Soak the item for approx 20 minutes or clean down the item with a cloth or brass brush. Wash fully and dry the item when rust removal is finished. Method 2 of Use a chemical remover. Many different types of chemicals can be purchased to help dissolve rust. They are typically made from phosphoric or oxalic acid and can be harmful to bare skin. Always take precautions when using a chemical to dissolve the rust. Follow the directions for your rust-removal product, as application may vary between products.
These chemicals often need to set for a long time and require scrubbing afterwards, so be ready for a little extra work. These products can be expensive and only work for small-scale projects, not larger rusted items. Convert the rust. Purchase a rust converter which works to stop rust from eating away any more of the metal.
It is similar to a spray paint, and acts as a primer for a coat of paint over the top as well. Although this stops rust from expanding, it may not be as effective as completely removing the rust from the metal.
This is only an option if you plan on painting over the metal. It will also leave a rough texture under the paint, as you are essentially just adding a covering to the rust. Use abrasive tools to scrape the rust off. This method requires a lot more elbow grease, but you can effectively remove rust by simply scraping it off. Use tools from your garage like a screwdriver, or rent tools from a local hardware store. Steel wool is easy to use and something you may already have in your home.
Use an electric sander to remove rust on large pieces. Always start with the roughest grain and slowly move to finer grains to minimize the roughness of the metal. Any metal tool can be used to scrape metal, but use a fine grain sandpaper afterwards to try to remove any marks the scraping may have made.
Use citric acid. Put some citric acid in a plastic container and pour in hot water, enough to cover the item being cleaned. For fun you can watch the bubbles reacting! Leave overnight then rinse and dry. Method 3 of Remove rust stains from clothing. If you happen to come into contact with rust, you can remove the residue from your clothing using lemon juice and water. Use water to rinse the juice and rust away.
Wash the article of clothing after using the lemon juice to aid in removing the rust. For heavier fabric with a worse rust stain, you can also apply salt to the area in addition to lemon juice.
Method 4 of Remove rust stains from brick or concrete. Create a paste of 7 parts lime-free glycerine, 1 part sodium citrate available from drug stores6 parts lukewarm water, and enough powdered calcium carbonate chalk to create a thick paste.
When it does, use a metal tool to scrape it off. If the stain has not been fully removed, use the same method and apply the paste again. Go over it as much as you can to get it off. Method 5 of Clean porcelain and ceramics of rust stains. Use a paste of borax and lemon juice and spread over the area. Scrub it off using a pumice stone, and reapply if necessary. Dry off the ceramic or porcelain afterwards to prevent new rust from forming.
Method 6 of Remove rust from stainless steel. Use a very fine grain sandpaper and rub down the stainless steel with it in a circular motion. Follow this by rubbing it down with a slice of onion, and rinse with hot water. Method 7 of Remove rust stains from tools with diesel. Get a liter of diesel actual diesel, not the fuel additive pictured. Pour it into a can and place the rusty tool such as stuck pliers, screwed items, etc.
Remove the soaking tool from the can. Brush if needed, using a brass brush from Dollar stores, size of a toothbrush. Clean it with an old rag before using, and behold, the tool will work again.
Put the lid back on the diesel can and use again for future rusty tools. Method 8 of Keep metal dry. Rust is a chemical process in which iron oxidizes and begins to flake away the metal.
This is caused by water that soaks into the metal or comes in contact with the metal frequently over time. Try to keep the metal in a cool, dry place to prevent moisture buildup. Always thoroughly dry metal after it comes in contact with water. Apply a primer. If you plan on painting your metal, use a paint primer to help the paint to stick and keep the metal away from moisture.
If the surface of the metal is smooth, you can use any spray-on primer. Apply solid coats of paint. Paint, in addition to a good primer, will keep metal away from moisture. Make sure you use a high quality paint for the best results. Spray paint works well for metal, but applying paint with a brush will help it to stick better.
Seal the paint with a clear top coat to reduce the rate of oxidation. However, if the rust stains are only affecting the surface of the paint, you can probably scrub it off with a cloth and some liquid detergent or a vinegar and baking soda paste. Not Helpful 1 Helpful 9. If there's just a thin coating of rust, it may not take longer than half an hour. For more severely rusted items, you may need to let it soak for several hours or a full day.
Not Helpful 2 Helpful Yes, WD is designed to remove rust. You can also apply it to metal items regularly to prevent new rust from forming. Not Helpful 25 Helpful Use a wire brush or chemical rust remover, they're sold at every hardware store. Not Helpful 9 Helpful Soak a rag in white vinegar, bathe the bike in vinegar and scrub with balled up aluminum foil. Not Helpful 52 Helpful Boiled linseed oil available in any hardware store in the paint section has often been used by farmers to coat metal and wood implements that live outdoors.
Not Helpful 38 Helpful If your "rust" is in the battery compartment of your remote, it is probably not rust. Many times, batteries go bad when they're left in a remote over long periods of time.
They will leak the acid liquid from inside the battery onto the metal contacts of the battery compartment. The liquid is generally clear, but the resulting corrosion looks like rust. Be careful not to get any of this liquid or dried powder onto your skin, eyes or clothing. Remove and dispose of the old batteries and clean or polish the contacts and surrounding compartment with a wire brush, a dental pick or small screwdriver, or, in a pinch, use a pencil eraser to polish.
Not Helpful 22 Helpful Not Helpful 49 Helpful Not Helpful 5 Helpful Not Helpful 32 Helpful Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered.
By using this service, some information may be shared with YouTube. When using chemical rust removers, be sure you are outside in a well-ventilated area.
Depending on the chemical, harmful fumes may be released in the cleaning process, such as acid vapors. Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0. If you have to clean rust from jewelry, like necklacesrings, etc. Combine a number of the steps together to get added power in your rust removal. For example, if you need to remove rust from a chain, let it soak in vinegar for hours, and then scrub it down using steel wool or a wire brush. It can rust while it is drying; so coat it or paint it.
Submit a Tip All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published. Related wikiHows. Recipe Ratings and Stories x. Co-authors: Updated: May 18, Article Summary X To remove rust from small metal items, first fill a container with undiluted white vinegar.
Deutsch: Metall von Rost befreien. Italiano: The Metal la Ruggine dal Metallo. Nederlands: Roest van metaal verwijderen. Bahasa Indonesia: Menghilangkan Karat. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 4, times. Reader Success Stories. BH Beckie Holt Jul 31, I soaked rusty garden decorations over night. This morning when I checked them the rust was pealing off in chunks in many spots! The rest came off with a toothbrush. JB John Berley May 2, These not only did the trick but, as an added bonus, are the most environmentally compatible.
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