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July 28, In a theater-wide scenario, with combined land, sea, and air forces operating against enemy territory, which in turn, are defended with similar forces, we can envision multiple roles for UAS. These include military planning, air defenses, air superiority aircraft, defense suppression, HVT assassination,  maritime operations, offensive operations, naval forces, land forces, cyber forces, TV reporters, mobile telephone traffic, and sound satellite links.
Moir, The radio frequency spectrum and EMS covered by emitters used by the forces is broad as was illustrated in Figures, and Table Most communications and radar systems are designed for use in specific bands, designated by international convention.
The key role of EW is to search these radio-frequency bands to cull information that can be used for intelligence analysis or by front-line operators. Moir, The information gathered may affect a tactical advantage on the battlefield, or in any stage before or after. In the CIA, intelligence is viewed as a continuous cycle of activities to keep ahead of adversaries always peace, transitions, war. Figure shows the Intelligence Cycle.
Figure Intelligence Cycle. Source: Count upon Security. August 15, The Five Steps of the Intelligence Cycle. The cycle begins with a user requesting intelligence be gathered on a scenario. The analysts will develop a set of requirements for the collection stage. Intelligence is then gathered via surveillance platforms; espionage, co-operative exchange, or open source documents. The intelligence is sent to a processing group whereby the data is analyzed, collated, validated, Sabotage - Various - Chapter Sixteen: The Bigger Picture EP (Vinyl), and securely disseminated to the users or to trusted allies.
They are read, evaluated, and acted on based on the intelligence. Time to fill in the EW boxes in Electronic warfare EW is defined as the art and science of preserving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum EMS for friendly use while denying its use by the enemy.
EW covers the full radio frequency spectrum, the infrared spectrum, and the ultraviolet spectrum. All these fields involve the receiving of enemy transmissions. ELINT systems collect substantial data over large periods to support detailed analysis. The received signals might be jammed or the information sent to a lethal responder.
Understanding propagation leads logically to understanding how they are intercepted, jammed or protected. The student can explore his works or use Moir, or Toomay, light reading and dated text to dive into RF propagation. Pettit, One of the classics that should read is by Lt. Wiley, Further, those links may be electronically jammed, cyber-spoofed especially navigationalor made ineffective with electronic or cyber interference.
The remainder of this chapter will focus on the electronic jamming, LPI countermeasures and UAS vulnerabilities to electronic interference. The purpose of communication is to move information from one location to another. All the following types of transmitted signals are communications:. Communications jamming requirements depend on the signal modulation strengththe geometry of the link, and the transmitted power.
You can hear the beginning of the interference as noise, then the junk signal is strong, then as the car moves out of the area, the AM news station regains its status. The cardinal rule of jamming is that you jam the receiver, NOT the transmitter.
Whereas a typical radar has both the transmitter and the associated receiver at the same location, a communication link, because its job is to take information from one location to another, always has its receiver in a different location from that of the transmitter. Figure shows the communication jamming geometry.
Source : Adamy, D. Boston, MA: Artech House. If transceivers are in use and one desires to jam the link in the other direction, the jamming signal must reach location A. Again, the receiver is the objective to be jammed. Boston: Artech House. Another difference of radar jamming is that the radar signal makes a round trip to the target, so the received signal power is below the transmitted power by the fourth power of the distance often stated as 40 log range.
Since the jammer power is transmitted one way, it is only reduced by the square of distance. This depends on the signal strength the jammer transmits in the direction of the receiver and the distance and propagation conditions between the jammer and the receiver.
The real test of jammer effectiveness is the effectiveness with which information flow is stopped. The jammer-to-receiving link and the desired transmitter-to-receiver UAV link in Figure can employ any propagation model. ERP J the effective radiated power of the jammer in dBm ERP S the effective radiated power of the desired signal transmitter, in dBm L J the propagation loss from jammer to receiver, in dBi  L S The propagation loss from the desired signal transmitter, in dBm G RJ the receiving antenna gain in the direction of the jammer, in dBi G R The receiving antenna gain in the direction of the desired signal transmitter, in dBi.
They use whips or monopoles. They are inexpensive. The receiving antenna has the same gain toward the jammer and the desired signal transmitter. The two gain terms cancel out. The principle is still the same. For the designer of an anti-UAS Drone gun, which transmits a jammer signal to a UAS to overwhelm the desired ground station command signals, one needs the know the power and height of the drone.
Table shows the details for this anti-drone gun. Source : Cagalj, M. Multi antennas and multi-bands frequency works simultaneous in the front end of gun, which enables the effective control range more than meters.
The tripod makes longtime watching much easier, which facilitates it popular in such no-fly zones as airport, prison and military areas and so on.
What is more, it is very convenient to guarantee the activities going safely and orderly in the important security areas and urban management sites. Full range cover within three frequency section and high-power transmission helps to achieve the ideal effects. Fast trigger, easy use and daughter switch design make control more ease and comfort. Dual lithium batteries for power supply last work time longer. The strong internal line connector and external fuses port make the whole vehicle and component parts fastened securely.
All aluminum alloy case body design and glass fiber material for antenna cover make its appearance lighter and faster. This gun has an operational limit of about meters 0. Army, FM Appendix gives a slightly different version of the Adamy equation Army, It is the location deviation above sea level. Parameters were chosen so that the height ratio would drop-out and the distance would induce some ground conductivity effects consistent with the FM examples. So, under these hypothetical conditions the jammer gun requires watts 2 watt light bulbs to take down the drone.
Theoretically, if the jammer was using a log periodic array LPA the power could be cut in half to The medium size drones present a more interesting case. More power is needed to lock on to the higher altitude UAS. The term of interest in the jamming equation from FM -7 is the ratio of the distances to the fourth power or second power for perfect terrain. That can have a major impact on jammer output power.
Army, Equation is not the only place we see a term taken to the 4 th power. There is no corresponding function in the numerator of equationwith an exponent greater than unity.
Toomay, There is no magic bullet to achieve a high-performance system. If low cross section targets are to be engaged, a combination of high-power, high gain, large aperture, and low-noise needs to be dictated. Radio waves were first used for communications, generate by spark gaps generating short intense pulses of current to achieve the needed electromagnetic radiation. The real break-through in radar was by Lee Deforest in He invented vacuum tubes. Sinusoidal oscillators came next in evolution.
Toomay, The English Air Ministry were glad he did so! See Figure Figure shows an example of one of these primitive radar stations. The German High command discounted the radar theory until it was too late in Source : Richards, D.
I: The Fight at Odds. Figure Chain Home Radar Station. Source: Richards, D Figure diagrams its functions. A burst of electromagnetic energy, oscillating at a predetermined frequency is generated and radiates into free space from an antenna. A clock is started.
The electromagnetic energy propagates outward at the speed of light, reradiating scattering from objects it encounters along its path. Part of the scattered energy returns to the radar is received and can be detected there because it imitates the frequency and duration of the transmitted pulse. Figure Simple Radar Block Diagram.
Source : Goel, R. A full derivation of all the terms, the radar spherical geometry and derivations of subset equations are in all legacy and modern radar texts and papers. Figure Simple Surveillance Radar. Source : Radar spherical Geometry to target. In Encyclopedia Britannica. The point of this diversion into Radar history was that the performance of both the jamming equation and the radar range equation are affected by a power of 4th exponent.
This affects equipment design, cost, effectiveness of detection or capture. The author gave the answer to the question never asked at the beginning of this chapter. Signals associated with LPI communications have unique modulations  designed to seriously perturb detection possibilities for the normal types of receivers. This is accomplished by spreading the frequency range over which the LPI signal is broadcast. Figure Spread Spectrum Signal.
Source : Price, H. Figure shows the effect of a second modulation applied to the narrowband waveform to spread its frequency over a larger part of the spectrum and reduce the power spectral density to less than random noise. Four types of spreading modulations are used: Adamy D.
However, there is a closely related science that intersects with EW and that is Cyber. There are distinct parallels and intersections between Cyber and EW. For instance, the sister of signal spreading techniques is encryption. Develop a PowerPoint presentation with your answers for class submission. Try to develop a taxonomy around your findings. Figure Cyber Electromagnetic Activities.
Source: US Army. Source : Askin, O. Cyber warfare and electronic warfare integration in the operational environment of the future: cyber electronic warfare. Adamy, D. Alford, L. Cyber Warfare: Protecting Military Systems. Acquisition Review Quarterly. Army, U. Communications Jamming Handbook. Barker, W. Burch, D. New York: McGraw-Hill. Dictionary of Military Terms. Retrieved from JCS. JP The Tale of the Body Thief.
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