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Published 17.12.2019


Download Meltdown


The following provides an overview of the exploit, and the memory mapping that is its target. The attack is described in terms of an Intel processor running Microsoft Windows or Linuxthe main test targets used in the original paper, but it also affects other processors and operating systems, including macOS aka OS XiOSand Android.

Modern computer processors use a variety of techniques to gain high levels of efficiency. Four widely used features are particularly relevant to Meltdown:. Ordinarily, the mechanisms described above are considered secure. They provide the basis for most modern operating systems and processors. Meltdown exploits the way these features interact to bypass the CPU's fundamental privilege controls and access privileged and sensitive data from the operating system and other processes.

To understand Meltdown, consider the data that is mapped in virtual memory much of which the process is not supposed to be able to access and how the CPU responds when a process attempts to access unauthorized memory.

The process is running on a vulnerable version of WindowsLinuxor macOSon a bit processor of a vulnerable type. Meltdown uses this technique in sequence to read every address of interest at high speed, and depending on other running processes, the result may contain passwords, encryption data, and any other sensitive information, from any address of any process that exists in its memory map.

The impact of Meltdown Meltdown on the design of the CPU, the design of the operating system specifically how it uses memory pagingand the ability of a malicious party to get any code run on that system, as well as the value of any data it could read if able to execute.

The specific impact depends on the implementation of the address translation mechanism in the OS and the underlying hardware architecture. The attack can reveal the content of any memory Meltdown is mapped into a user address space, even if otherwise protected. For example, before kernel page-table isolation was introduced, most versions of Linux mapped all physical memory into the address space of every user-space process; the mapped addresses are mostly protected, making them unreadable from user-space and accessible only when transitioned into the kernel.

The existence of these mappings makes transitioning to and from the kernel faster, but is unsafe in the presence of the Meltdown vulnerability, as the contents of all physical memory which may contain sensitive information such as passwords belonging to other processes or the kernel can then be obtained via the above method by any unprivileged process from user-space.

According to researchers, "every Intel processor that implements out-of-order execution is potentially affected, which is effectively every processor since except Intel Itanium and Intel Atom before Cloud providers allow users to execute programs on the same physical servers where sensitive data might be stored, and rely on safeguards provided by the CPU to prevent unauthorized access to the privileged memory locations where that data is stored, a feature that the Meltdown exploit circumvents.

The vulnerability does not affect AMD microprocessors. ARM Meltdown reported that the majority of their processors are not vulnerable, and published a list of the specific processors that are affected.

A large portion of the current mid-range Android handsets use the Cortex-A53 or Cortex-A55 in an octa-core arrangement and are not affected by either the Meltdown or Spectre vulnerability as they do not perform out-of-order execution.

This includes devices with the Qualcomm SnapdragonSnapdragonSnapdragonand all Snapdragon 4xx processors based on A53 or A55 cores. Mitigation of the vulnerability requires changes to operating system kernel code, including increased isolation of kernel memory from user-mode processes. KPTI patches have been developed for Linux kernel 4. Apple included mitigations in macOS These were released a month before the vulnerabilities were made public.

Microsoft released an emergency update to Windows 108. On 9 JanuaryMicrosoft paused the distribution of the update to systems with affected CPUs while it investigates and addresses this bug. A statement by Intel Meltdown that "any performance impacts are workload-dependent, and, for the average computer user, should not be significant and will be mitigated over time".

The vulnerabilities were mitigated by a new partitioning system that improves process and privilege-level separation. The company also announced it had developed Intel Microcode workarounds for processors dating back toand that it had plans to develop them for most processors dating back to including the Core 2 Duo ; [29] [30] however, a month later in Aprilit announced it was backing off that plan for a number of processor families and that no processor earlier than would have a patch available.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Microprocessor security vulnerability. This section is in list format, but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this sectionif appropriate. Editing help is available. January Further information: Kernel page-table isolation.

Retrieved ARM Developer. Ars Technica. The Register. Intel newsroom. Bloomberg Technology. Archived from the original on The New York Times.

PC World. BBC News. The Verge. Be sure and read the questions Wall Street should have asked". Archived PDF from the original on June Lecture Notes in Computer Science.

Retrieved — via Twitter. The Guardian. Ubuntu Wiki. Amazon Web Services, Inc. ARM Ltd. Graz University of Technology. Since his creation, Meltdown became one of the most destructive robots alive. In his crime spree, he destroyed a major city, sabotaged an iridium mine, and committed numerous thefts and assaults. Because of these delinquencies, Von Nebula recruited Meltdown into his army of criminals.

After Corroder reported to Von Nebula his actions at the future site of Penitentiary on Tantalus 5Meltdown was given a mission to infect Preston Stormer with nanobots that could overrun Robot and Heroes ' systems. He fired several radioactive sludge bolts, with one of these aimed for Furno, only to have Stormer to predictably step in front of the Rookie Hero and take the hit.

Having accomplished his goal of corrupting Stormer, Meltdown proceeded to grapple out of the scene. Meltdown and the rest of Von Nebula's gang raided the Deltari Quadrantstealing their entire stock of palomino diamonds. However, the Heroes used Particle Separators to scatter their atoms and evade their attacks. Eventually running out of ammo, Meltdown and Thunder were quickly stunned by the heroes.

Stringer and Bulk then wrapped a piece of metal around Meltdown, trapping the villains. Meltdown is currently in prison. Some months later, Voltix and Black Phantom created a black hole using Von Nebula's black hole staff. He is still on the loose. Meltdown is Von Nebula's most destructive servant, due to the fact that he's insane. He is a genius when it comes to radioactivity, and has hijacked, stolen, even destroyed an entire city before joining Von Nebula.

Like his leader, he is very committed to seeing Hero Factory destroyed. He delights in firing blasts of toxic waste and watching his enemies wither. Meltdown's armor is yellow and black, with capsules on his shoulders for carrying toxic waste to fire at opponents.


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8 Comments

  1. Tall   Mikall
    Spectre and Meltdown are the names given to a trio of variations on a vulnerability that affects nearly every computer chip manufactured in the last 20 years. The flaws are so fundamental and Author: Josh Fruhlinger.
    25.12.2019 Reply
  2. Yozshugami   Zulkibar
    Meltdown breaks the most fundamental isolation between user applications and the operating system. This attack allows a program to access the memory, and thus also the secrets, of other programs and the operating system.
    20.12.2019 Reply
  3. JoJogor   Kajill
    Apr 30,  · Meltdown: Throughline In the early hours of March 28, , a system malfunction began what would become the worst nuclear accident in American history. What ensued punctured the .
    19.12.2019 Reply
  4. Gobei   Tygomuro
    Meltdown is essential reading for anyone who seeks to understand these dangers and what can be done to address them.”— Martin Ford, author of Rise of the Robots “It is rare to have the pleasure of reading a book that tackles a complex issue and provides a new way of thinking that is both rigorous and practical. Meltdown is such a flameworkeranayathrisflameblade.xyzinfos:
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  5. Tojatilar   Mezinos
    Meltdown definition is - the accidental melting of the core of a nuclear reactor. How to use meltdown in a sentence.
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    Dec 18,  · Meltdown is a tactical arcade shooter featuring both singleplayer and intense online multiplayer. Become the most skilled soldier, choose your weapons, get the best upgrades, buckle up and start your mission. Be careful, each enemy has it’s own combat style, special AI and gear. Adapt to them to survive! FEATURES 30 Random Generated Levels 10 Upgradable ranged weapons 5 Melee /5(K).
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  7. Faukree   Akinohn
    1. A severe overheating of a nuclear reactor core, resulting in melting of the core and escape of radiation. 2. A disastrous situation; a failure or collapse: "No central bank or government institution existed to halt the meltdown, to stop the sudden run on the banks" (Evan I. Schwartz).
    23.12.2019 Reply
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