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Polygon plane used for the sea surface. Frontal fog, sometimes called precipitation fog, is a type of evaporation fog that forms when a layer of warm air rises over a shallow layer of colder surface air. The uplift of warm air forms clouds that often yield precipitation, or falling water particles. The precipitation, usually rain, is warmer than the cold air beneath it and evaporates into the air. This raises the cold air to its A Fog Book - Various - Underwater Noises (CDr) point and fog is produced.
This type of fog is called frontal fog because the conditions that give rise to it occur just before the arrival of a warm front or just after the passage of a cold front. Most people, when driving along poorly lit roads at night or in other conditions of reduced visibility, instinctively turn on their high-beam headlights. However, this is not a wise strategy for driving in fog. Light is scattered by fog droplets and is reflected into the driver's eyes.
High-beam lights merely illuminate the fog directly ahead of the vehicle and make it difficult to see anything beyond. Close to the ground, the fog is usually less dense. Low-beam headlights point lower toward the ground than do high-beam headlights and are thus more appropriate for foggy, nighttime driving. Fog lamps are often installed just above or below the front bumper.
This low mounting position reduces the amount of light scattered back to the driver's eyes. Upslope fog is formed by the slow passage of a moist parcel of air up the side of a hill or mountain. As the air rises, it expands adiabatically; that is, with no heat transfer. When air expands, it cools. Once the air cools to the dew point, condensation occurs. Upslope fog generally covers a large area, sometimes hundreds of miles, and may persist for days.
Upslope fog is common in all mountain ranges. It is prevalent on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in the winter and spring. It occurs when cold air, following in the wake of a cold frontdrifts westward from the Great Plains and rides up the gentle slopes. A similar phenomenon occurs in eastern Australia.
There, moist air from the Tasman Sea is blown to shore and travels along the eastern slopes of the Great Dividing Range to a level where fog forms. Freezing fog is the term used to describe fog that develops in air that has a temperature below freezing. In most cases, freezing fog is comprised of supercooled water droplets. Supercooled water is water that exists in the liquid state below its freezing point.
Freezing fog freezes onto any solid surface it comes in contact with, such as trees, telephone poles, cars, and roadways. When freezing fog encounters a surface, it deposits a layer of frost called rime. Rime is not crystalline like true frost, which is called hoar frost. Rather, it is ice that contains trapped air, giving it a whitish appearance. Rime often persists long after the fog has cleared. It creates extremely hazardous driving conditions and is nearly impossible to walk on without slipping.
One way in which ice fog is formed is from the water vapor released by the breathing of a herd of caribou or reindeer. Another way it is formed is from the passage of moist, marine air over an icy surface. Ice fog is the least dense type of fog. It glitters in the sun, earning it the nickname diamond dust. Fog stratus, also called high fog, is a layer of fog that does not reach all the way to the ground. Rather, it hovers a short distance above ground.
Fog stratus represents the intermediate stage through which a layer of fog most commonly valley fog passes as it dissipates. Typically, fog forms at night. When the sun rises the next morning it begins to warm the ground.
This, in turn, warms the lowest layer of air, from which the fog evaporates. Sometimes the process of fog evaporation proceeds smoothly, from the bottom to the top of the layer, in a relatively short time. Other times, however, the fog is so thick that little sunlight penetrates it, and the air remains cold enough that fog stratus persists.
Fog stratus also requires calm conditions, since winds promote mixing of the air layers and speed up evaporation. Fog stratus usually clears by late morning. Occasionally, however, when clouds have moved in and inhibit the sunlight's warming of the ground, fog stratus may persist all day. A thick enough layer of fog stratus may even bring drizzle or snow flurries.
Aguado, Edward, and James Burt. Understanding Weather and Climate. Binhua, Wang. Sea Fog. New York : Springer-Verlag, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. July 2, Retrieved July 02, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.
In meteorology, fog is defined as a mass of liquid water vapor or solid ice crystals that has condensed and suspended itself in the lower layers of the atmosphere just above the surface of Earth. Fog is different from a stratus cloud only in that the cloud's base has dropped down so that it is in contact or in close proximity with the ground, whether it is on level ground, on the top of a hill, or within a valley. Because of fog's location near the ground, it often causes reduced visibility of a normally clear sky.
Specifically, meteorologists define fog as a cloud that reduces visibility on the surface of Earth to less than 0. Fog is generally classified as four types, depending on how it is formed: advection, precipitation, radiation, and upslope. Advection fog is formed whenever wind or. Precipitation fog, also called frontal fog, often develops when snowflakes or raindrops descend through an atmospheric layer that is cooler and drier.
It also occurs frequently during the passage of warm and cold fronts, when the lower air near the surface is much different in temperature from the upper air.
Radiation fog, which forms only over land after sunset, is caused by the cooling of Earth—that is, land cools more rapidly than water; as a consequence, fog is formed over land.
It often occurs in fall and early winter months. Radiation fog usually develops up to 4 feet just over 1 meter in depth, but winds and other atmospheric events can cause it to be larger in depth. Upslope fog is formed when air is uniformly cooled by rising and enlarging wind currents, such as when the wind blows up a mountain slope what is called orographic liftcausing the moisture within it to condense.
Changes in local and global climate make forecasting of fog difficult at best. Further meteorological studies are needed to decide if currently used forecasting tools provide accurate guidance to meteorologists and other professionals in various pursuits throughout the world.
For instance, because aviation pilots and air traffic controllers need to be able to forecast the occurrence of fog when dealing with airplane flights, the Federal Aviation Administration FAA authorizes studies to find better methods and devices to assist these professionals. According to the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, the FAA provides research into soil and air temperature, cloud ceiling, visibility, rainfall, moisture levels, and other critical variables to better understand fog.
Some of the research involves weather balloons and automated sensing systems placed in key locations in order to determine the behavior of fog. The warming and cooling of Earth, locally and globally, is controlled to a large part by fog and clouds. They block the heat brought by the sun in the form of sunlight, reflecting it back into space.
Such action helps to cool Earth. However, heat already beneath fog and clouds can become trapped by its water particles, which can quickly heat up the planet. Whether Earth becomes warmer or cooler depends in part by the frequency and amount of fog and clouds. A long-term change in their patterns could have a drastic impact on Earth's weather, either making it much colder or warmer.
Atmospheric physicist Anthony D. Del Genio, who is associated with the U. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, states that even a small change in cloud cover can dramatically change the temperature of Earth's atmosphere. Del Genio studies the relationship between water vapor in the atmosphere and meteorological phenomena. As the world adds larger concentrations of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, Del Genio and many other scientists around the world are working on mathematical computer models based on satellite and ground-based observations to determine Earth's changing climate.
At that temperature, dew begins to form, and water vapor condenses into liquid. Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are non-renewable on the timescale of human civilization, because their natural replenishment would take many millions of years.
The most important greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxidemethane, nitrous oxideand various artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons. All but the latter are naturally occurring, but human activity over the last several centuries has significantly increased the amounts of carbon dioxidemethane, and nitrous oxide in Earth's atmosphere, causing global warming and global climate change. OROGRAPHY: Branch of geology that deals with the arrangement and character of land altitude variations hills and mountains ; also, the average land altitude over a given region.
In computer models of climate, orography in the second sense defines the lower bound of the atmosphere over land. Stratus clouds occur worldwide but play a particularly important role in Arctic climate, where they are prevalent and affect vertical exchanges of heat, moisture, and momentum; this, in turn, affects global climate. Water vapor is an important part of the natural greenhouse effect.
Although humans are not significantly increasing its concentration, it contributes to the enhanced greenhouse effect because the warming influence of greenhouse gases leads to apositive water vapor feed back. In addition to its role as a natural greenhouse gas, water vapor plays an important role in regulating the temperature of the planet because clouds form when excess water vapor in the atmosphere condenses to form ice and water droplets and precipitation.
Other scientists are working at research to determine how artificially made substances affect fog and clouds. For instance, black carbon is a primary ingredient in soot left over when fossil fuels are not completely combusted burned. When black carbon gets into the atmosphere, it becomes easily trapped in water vapor. When this action happens, scientists contend that fog and clouds absorb more heat from Earth's surface than normal, causing warmer temperatures.
Such research to learn more about how human-made substances affect fog and clouds is important to Earth's evolving climate. Allaby, Michael. Fog, Smog, and Poisoned Rain. New York : Facts on File, Introduction to Modern Atmospheric Effects. Lutgens, Frederick K. The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology. Pretor-Pinney, Gavin. New York: Berkley Publishing Group, McConnell, J.
Jacobson, Mark Z. The atmosphere is obscured — essentially by cloud formation — near the surface and fog conditions are generally characterized as existing when atmospheric visibility is reduced to about one-half mile approximately 0. Fog forms either by air cooling its dew point — A Fog Book - Various - Underwater Noises (CDr) in radiation fogadvection fog, or upslope fog — or by evaporation and mixing, when moisture is added to the air by evaporation and then mixing with drier air to form evaporation or frontal fog.
Other types of fog include ice fog a fog of suspended ice crystals, which frequently forms in Arctic locationsacid fog fog forming in polluted air, and turning acidic due to sulfur or nitrogenoxides, or smog fog consisting of water and smoke particles.
While any type of fog can be hazardous because of the potential dangers of reduced atmospheric visibility — especially for ground and air transportation — acid fog and smog can pose additional risk to human health, causing eye irritations or respiratory problems. This causes moisture in the nearby layers of air to condense into fog droplets.
Strong winds normally mix the lower-level cold air with the higher-level dry air, thus preventing the air at the bottom from becoming saturated enough to create observable fog. The presence of clouds at night can also prevent fog formation of this type, because they reduce radiational cooling. Radiation fog often forms in late fall and winter nights, especially in lower areas, because cold and heavy air moves downhill to gather in valleys or other relatively low-lying areas, A Fog Book - Various - Underwater Noises (CDr).
Accordingly, radiation fog is also called valley fog. Advection fog forms when warm, moist air moves horizontally over a relatively cooler surface. During such contact, the layer of air near the surface may cool to below its dew point to form advection fog, which can be very persistent.
It is common along coastlines where moist air moves from over a water surface to a cooler coastal land mass. Advectional fog can also occur if an already cool air mass moves over a even colder surface e. Advection-radiation fog forms when warm, moist A Fog Book - Various - Underwater Noises (CDr) moves over a cold surface that is cold as a result of radiation cooling.
When warm humid air moves over cold water, a sea fog may form. Upslope fog forms in higher areas, where a moist air mass is forced to move up along a mountain incline. As the air mass moves up the slope, it is cooled below the dew point to produce fog.
That is because when you are not able to hear the consonants of speech, the speaker sounds like they are mumbling or not speaking clearly. In order to determine whether you have a high-frequency hearing loss, A Fog Book - Various - Underwater Noises (CDr) thorough evaluation by an Audiologist is recommended.
Hearing aid technology can help to overcome a high-frequency hearing loss and make speech sound clearer. Speak to a qualified hearing specialist and discuss hearing aid options tailored specifically for you. We recommend that you get professional advice to better understand your hearing loss needs.
If you experience muffled hearing in one ear or both ears it is recommended that you see a hearing healthcare professional. They will be able to tell you which of the above conditions you are experiencing. Muffled hearing does not discriminate. It can be sudden or gradual, in one or both ears, and can affect anyone at any age.
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